Chapter 1: Matter, Measurement, and Problem Solving
Principles of Chemistry: A Molecular Approach
Terms in this set (64)
Submicroscopic particles that constitute the fundamental building blocks of ordinary matter.
Two or more atoms joined in a specific geometric arrangement.
Science that seeks to understand the behavior of matter by studying the behavior of atoms and molecules.
Tentative interpretation or explanation of the observations. A good one is falsifiable, meaning it makes predictions that can be confirmed or refuted by further observations.
Highly controlled procedures designed to generate observations. May support a hypothesis or prove it wrong.
Brief statement that summarizes past observations and predicts future ones.
law of conservation of mass
In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed. Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794)
Model for the way nature is and tries to explain not merely what nature does, but why.
Each element is composed of tiny destructible particles called atoms. All atoms of a given element have the same mass and other properties. Atoms combine in simple, whole-number ratios to form compounds. John Dalton (1766-1844)
An approach to acquiring knowledge about the natural world that begins with observations and leads to the formation of testable hypotheses.
Anything that occupies space and has mass.
A specific instance of matter. (Ex: air, water, sand)
A classification of the form of matter as a solid, liquid, or gas.
A state of matter in which atoms or molecules are packed close to one another in fixed locations with definite volume.
A state of matter in which atoms or molecules pack about as closely as they do in solid matter but are free to move relative to each other, giving a fixed volume but not a fixed shape.
A state of matter in which atoms or molecules have a great deal of space between them and are free to move relative to one another; lacking a definite shape or volume, it conforms to those of its container.
A solid in which atoms, molecules, or ions are arranged in patterns with long-range repeating order. (Ex: table salt, diamond)
A solid in which atoms or molecules do not have any long-range order. (Ex: glass, plastic, charcoal)
The kinds and amounts of substances that compose matter.
A substance composed of only one type of atom or molecule.
A substance composed of two or more different types of atoms or molecules that can be combined in continuously variable proportions.
A substance that cannot be chemically broken down into simpler substances.
A substance composed of two or more elements in fixed, definite proportions. (Ex: water)
A mixture in which the composition varies from one region to another. (Ex: wet sand)
A mixture with the same composition throughout.
Changes that alter only state or appearance, but not composition. (Ex: water boils, changes from liquid to gas, but gas remains composed of water molecules)
Changes that alter the composition of matter. (Ex: rusting iron, iron combines with oxygen from the air to form iron oxide (rust))
A property that a substance displays without changing its chemical composition. (Ex: the smell of gasoline, it does not change its composition when it exhibits odor)
A property that a substance displays only by changing its composition via a chemical change. (Ex: flammability of gasoline, it changes its composition when it burns, turning into completely new substances (CO2 and H2O)
The capacity to do work
The action of a force through a distance. (Ex: pushing a box across the floor)
The energy associated with motion of an object.
The energy associated with its position or composition of an object.
The energy associated with the temperature of an object.
law of conservation of energy
Energy is neither created nor destroyed.
Standard quantities used to specify measurements.
Unit system used in the United States. Consists of units such as inches, yards, and pounds.
Unit system used around the world. Consists of units such as centimeters, meters and kilograms.
International System of Units (SI)
The unit system used by scientists based on the metric system.
The SI standard unit of length slightly longer than a yard. (1 yard is 36 inches, 1 meter is 39.37 inches) (SI unit)
The SI standard unit of mass defined as the mass of a metal cylinder kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Sevres, France.
A measure of the quantity of matter making up an object.
The SI standard unit of time, defined as the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation emitted from a certain transition in cesium-133 atom.
The SI standard unit of temperature.
A measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms of molecules that compose a sample of matter.
Fahrenheit (F) scale
The temperature scale that is most familiar in the United States, on which pure water freezes at 32 F and boils at 212 F.
Celsius (C) scale
The temperature scale most often used by scientists (and countries but United States), on which pure water freezes at 0 C and boils at 100 C (at atmospheric pressure).
The temperature scale that assigns 0 K (-273 C or -459 F) to the coldest temperature possible, absolute zero, the temperature at which molecular motion virtually stops. 1 K = 1 degree C.
Multipliers that change the value of the unit by powers of 10.
Combination of other units. (Ex: m/s, mph, kg/m^3)
A measure of space. (Ex: m^3, cm^3, mm^3)
A unit of volume equal to 1000cm^3 or 1.057 qt.
A unit of volume equal to 10^-3 L or 1 cm^3.
The ratio of an object's mass to its volume. Density = mass/volume or d =m/V
A property such as density that is independent of the amount of a given substance.
A property that depends of the amount of a given substance, such as mass.
significant figures (digits)
In any reported measurement, the non-place-holding digits that indicate the precision of the measured quantity.
Number that have no uncertainty, and thus do not limit the number of significant figures in any calculation.
How close the measured value is to the actual value.
How close a series of measurements are to one another or how reproducible they are.
Error that has equal probability of being too high or too low.
Error that tends toward being either too high or too low.
The use of units as a guide to solving problems.
A factor used to convert between two different units; a conversion factor can be constructed from any two quantities known to be equivalent.
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