Biology: Chapter 12 DNA
Learn the following concepts and vocabulary from chapter 12.
Terms in this set (28)
nitrogenous base that bonds with thymine in DNA.
nitrogenous base that bonds with adenine in DNA.
nitrogenous base that bonds with cytosine in DNA.
nitrogenous base that bonds with guanine in DNA.
A=T and C=G
The five carbon sugar found in D.N.A.
A monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
Scientist that was the first to photograph D.N.A. using x-ray diffraction.
The type of copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA and each new DNA molecule consists of 1 original and 1 new strand.
enzyme that "proofreads" new DNA strands, helping to ensure that each molecule is a nearly perfect copy of the original DNA
Watson & Crick
The two scientists that built a model explaining the specific structures and properties of DNA based on Rosalind Franklin's research on x-ray diffraction
The structure of DNA that looks like a twisted ladder held together by hydrogen bonds between paired bases (C-G) or (A-T).
the process of duplicating DNA
the process of making an mRNA molecule from a DNA template
Process by which mRNA read by ribosomes and an amino acid chain is produced to make a protein
tRNA (transfer RNA)
type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
mRNA (messenger RNA)
a single-stranded RNA molecule that encodes the information to make a protein
a nitrogen-containing base found in RNA (but not in DNA) and derived from pyrimidine; it binds to adenine
rRNA (ribosomal RNA)
type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes
point mutation (substitution)
one nucleotide is replaced with a different nucleotide
mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
a mutation in which one or more nucleotides are added to a gene
a mutation in which one or more pairs of nucleotides are removed from a gene
A change in the chromosome structure, resulting in new gene combinations.
chromosomal Mutation: Deletion
Part of a chromosome is completely deleted from the chromosome
chromosomal mutation: duplication
Part of the chromosome is duplicated, adding to the chromosome
chromosomal mutation: inversion
When part of the chromosome becomes flipped in the chromosomal order
a change in the base sequence of a gene