World history Africa
Terms in this set (49)
40% of the African continent
Largest desert in the world, receives less than 10in. of rain, has served as both a highway and a barrier between Northern and Southern Africa
Arabic for "the shore", transition between the Sahara and the Savanna
Expansion of the desert
not as dry as the Sahara, supports wild life
extremely dry, the only water source is the mist from the Atlantic Ocean
Great Rift Valley
huge canyon that runs 4,000 miles long. Rich, soil, abundant mineral resources. Heavily populated. Fossils of early man were found here
Fairly flat areas of land at a high elevation
steep cliff/ waterfall at the edge of a plateau
Tropical rainforest of Africa
Found in the congo, hot and humid. Only 10% of Africa is rainforest
The three other major river systems
Congo, Zambezi, and Niger.
A large grassland. 50% of Africa is covered in this. Unreliable rainfall. Droughts and famines are common
spread sleeping sickness to people and cattle. This can lead to comas and death.
Known as Nubia when it was under Egyptian control. In 1000BC the ppl freed themselves and became kush. From 750-633BC they conquered Egypt and then were forced out by Assyrians. Major trading empire. Capital was Meroe. It's decline led to the rise of Axum
Iron products, ivory, gold, ebony, frankincense and slaves
Capital of kush/ Nubia on the Nile . Trading center
South of kush, modern day Ethiopia. Founded by Arabs $ combined Arab and African cultures. Established a trading center along the Red Sea. Controlled the trade route between India & the Mediterranean. Competed w kush for ivory. Christianity was official religion. Famous for building obelisks.
brought Christianity to Africa
tall, thin pillars with pyramid-shaped tops (towers).
Centers of trade and govt.
African cultures had
- No written language
- Society based on community & cooperation
- lineage was the basic building block of society
- women were respected
- coming of age rituals
- respect for nature
A unanimous or general agreement
Basic building block of African society , a group of ppl who can trace their decent back to a common ancestor.
Clans or tribes
Several lineages linked together. Ppl's loyalty to their ______ was the most powerful. This led to difficulties in uniting newly independent African nations
Owned the land and ruled the home
Were educated by their mothers until the age of 6. After education they focused on training for their adult role in the community.
African cultures believed that the world and its inhabitants were created by ________.
The belief that every object on Earth has a living spirit.
Berber Nomads (N. Africa)
Often captured and enslaved ppl.
Were sold along the Mediterranean coast. Many were criminals, debtors, or captured during war.
Played an important role in African religion. Rituals were dedicated to them. ________ were very influential over the lives of their family. They could help or harm their descendants.
Diviners and healers
the interpreters between people and the divine world, they explained misfortune and foretold the future. Employed by kings. Herbal medicine was used by them.
Storytellers, served as historians who kept the cultures history alive
Carried goods across the Sahara, used the stars to travel. The trips took approximately 40 days.
Was plentiful in the Sahara and Western Africa was rich in gold but needed salt.
Led to the growth of powerful empires in the west and cities along the trade routes
The first powerful west African empire. The "land of gold". Ruler was called "Ghana" or war chief. Sonike rulers extended the power of the kingdom which meant control of gold trade. Much of its wealth was from taxing all trade. Captured by the berbers in 1076.
Gold, wood, and kola nuts for salt, cloth, and horses
Established by Sundiata Keita after Ghana was broken up. Mansa musa. Laws based on the Quran
Ruler of Mali (r. 1312-1337). Increased the size of the kingdom by capturing salt mines in Taghaza. Established a peaceful empire. Trade routes were protected. Converted to Islam and allowed others to continue to practice their own religion. His extravagant pilgrimage through Egypt to Mecca in 1324 established the empire's reputation for wealth in the Mediterranean world.
Became a center of Islamic learning
Rose to power in the west in Gao. In 1464 Sunni Ali rose to power forcefully. Asia Muhammad rose to power after him. Collapsed in 1591 bc weapons were no match for guns and cannons of Morocco
First great ruler of Songhai, Songhai reaches the height of its power under him. Trade routes were made safe again
Ruler of the Songhai empire after Sunni Ali who followed Islamic teachings, went on a hajj and restored Timbuktu as a center of learning.
Foundation of African languages
Arab-African trade led to the development of
A blend of Arabic and Bantu
Power was was based on their control over gold mines, means "great Stone house". Built w/o any binding materials. Stateless society where groups of villages were organized by clans and led by local rulers