Phlebotomy Chapter 9 Notes
Terms in this set (28)
When a physician compares a patient's test results to reference ranges(if possible on the same patient)
resting state of body early in the morning(specimens at this time are often used to establish reference ranges)
What are some factors influencing the Basal State?
Age, Gender(men have more Hgb), Conditions of the body(ex: fever, hormones).
Newborns: higher RBCs and WBCs
Kidney function: decreases with age
Hormones/ Estogen: decrease with age
Hormones: vary with age
Lower oxygen levels at high altitude resulting in increased RBCs, Hgb and Hematocrit.
C-reactive protein and uric acid increase with high altitude
urine creatinine decreases with high altitudes
Decreased body fluids bc of vomiting or diarrhea resulting in hemoconcentration. This affects blood components like iron, calcium, RBCs.
Often difficult to draw from dehydrated patients.
Food/Drinks can affect blood composition , therefore requiring fasting or a special diet.
How long does Fasting usually last and when is the blood drawn?
8-10 hours and overnight and blood is collected in the morning.
Can drink water unless NPO
(nothing by mouth)
Fasting no more than 12 hours or problems such as heart rate problems or electrolyte imbalance can occur.
Malnutrition/Starvation can cause...
Decrease in cholesterol , triglycerides, urea levels.
Increase in Creatinine, ketones, and uric acid levels
Increased Blood Lipids
What part of the blood do lipids affect?
Serum of the Plasma
Increased lipid count can turn the serum to...
A milky (cloudy) white instead of a pale and transparent yello
Usually Timed Tests
Jet lag can affect diurnal rhythm.
Can change blood Analytes concentration
Ex: Chemotherapy: can lower blood cells
Drug Therapy (Cont.)
Can interfere with actual test procedures and cause false results,
CRUD: Compounds reacting unfortunately as desired
CRUD drugs should be avoided 48-72 hours before a urine sample
Can affect Glucose, insulin, lactic acid and total protein of blood
sometimes indicates liver inflammation bc of hep B/C
Improper liver function leading to yellowish tint on skin
Increased bilirubin yields increased yellow bile, which can interfere with chemistry tests.
Pumping the fist during a venipuncture
can increase potassium levels
-burns, scars, and tattoos
difficult to palpate here
Tattoos: try to find non dye space o draw
Sclerosed : hardened
Often caused bc of inflammation, chemotherapy, disease
How to draw on a Problem Site
use another site if possible, or draw distal to damaged veins.
swelling caused by an abnormal accumulation of fluid in cells, tissues, or cavities of the body
When fluid from IV infiltrates surrounding tissues
Contaminates blood with tissue fluid
Fragile tissues, hard veins to locate
a swelling or mass of blood
caused by a leaking vessel during a venipuncture
Painful, can contaminate sample, obstruct blood flow
Hematoma: How to draw
never perform draw through hematoma
IF THERE IS NO OTHER SITE, draw distal to hematoma
Breast Removal; lymph flow obstruction (lymphostasis) with removal of lymph nodes
NEVER DRAW FROM SIDE OF A MASTECTOMY
Veins may be deep/ hard to find; double crease
CAN draw inside of double crease
USE longer tourniquet (or two)
TRY median cubital or cephalic vein
a catheter placed in an artery (usually radial)
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