36 terms

Science A Closer Look 5th Grade: Chapter 9 - Comparing Kinds of Matter

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Terms in this set (...)

matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
density
the amount of matter for each cubic centimeter a substance; found by dividing the mass of an object by its volume
buoyancy
the resistance of an object to sinking
element
a material that cannot be broken down into any simpler substances through chemical reactions
atom
the smallest unit of an element that retains the properties of that element
malleability
the ability to be bent, flattened, hammered or pressed into new shapes without breaking
mass
amount of matter in an object
weight
how strongly gravity pulls on an object
volume
measures how much space matter takes up
metals
elements that share common properties like shiny luster, conductivity, and flexibility; copper, gold, silver
nucleus
center of an atom; contains protons and neutrons
proton
particle with a positive charge
neutron
particle with no electric charge
electron
particle with a negative charge; smaller than protons or neutrons
molecule
particles with more than one atom joined together
ductility
is the ability to be pulled into thin wires without breaking
corrosion
result of metals combining with nonmetals
semiconductor
is a material that has properties in between conductors and insulators
property
something that can be observed about an object or a group of objects or elements
state of matter
is one of the three common forms that matter can take: solid, liquid, gas
solid
state of matter that has a definite shape
liquid
state of matter that has a definite volume but no definite shape.
metalloids
elements with properties between metals and nonmetals, are semiconductors; silicon
atomic number
number of protons in an atom and determines which element it is
hydrogen and helium
2 most common elements
Periodic table
A table that shows the elements, their atomic number, symbol, and average atomic mass; elements with similar chemical properties are grouped together.
metals, nonmetals, and metalloids
3 groups of elements based on their properties
conductivity
property of conducting heat and electricity well
Dmitri Mendeleev
this man created the periodic table in 1869
gas
state of matter with no definite shape or volume
nonmetal
an element that is a poor conductor, dull, and brittle; chlorine, oxygen
electron microscope
a microscope that uses a beam of electrons to magnify objects
scanning tunneling microscope
a microscope that scans atoms with a needle
oxygen, carbon, hydrogen
three most common elements in plants and animals
hydrogen
most common element on earth
75 percent
percentage of elements that are metals