The neutral stimulus or object that is before the unconditioned stimulus. For ex. The light or sound - neutral object - it has no affect on the dog.
Dog salivates when the food is presented - it is the response to the food aka unconditional stimulus
Dog salivates at the sight of the light or hearing a sound - aka conditional stimulus
Operant conditioning - B.F. Skinner, Thorndike
type of learning in which behavior is altered by systematically changing consequences.
Social cognitive theory- albert bandura
physiologically responses- thinking and feeling
learning new behavior by modeling and observation.
Four basic functions for social cognitive theory
Attentional processes - perceive the behavior accurately
The pattern of associations that an individual has with the model or situation being observed greatly influences attention.
Retention processes - what you see it, you try to actively remember it. This can be done by:
Verbal coding- self talk and
Imaginal coding-mental images of events or situations.
Motor reproduction processes- imitating accurately the skills or behavior.
Motivational processes- putting into action modeled behavior only if the behavior leads to success.
Vicarious reinforcement and self- reinforcement.
the individuals perception of their ability to deal with different types of situations.
systematic desensitization - three step process
Designed to treat patients with phobias and anxiety toward people, events, objects, fear in general
step 1 - Relaxation - learning relaxation skills
step 2 - anxiety hierarchy - counselor assesses events that cause anxiety and how intense it is
step 3 - desensitization - client thinks about a neutral scene, anxiety provoking scene, and while in the anxiety scene, counselor has client use relaxation skills.
Factors in Personality according to RBT - ALBERT ELLIS
Personality depends on biological and social factors - individuals are varingly vulnerable to emotional disturbances.
Biological factors- individuals have innate tendicies to hurt themselves or think in irrational ways.
Social factors - relationships, groups, and institutions all have an impact on the expectations that individuals have on themselves and others.
a = activating event
b = belief system
Someone got a b on their exam - that would be activating event. This activating event will interact with an individual's belief system that they must only get "A"s on exam. The consequence is that they become depressed and angry.
Disturbance about disturbance - your mad because you are mad at yourself.
MUSTS- related to your belief system. You must do this or that.
This is mal-adaptive. There are three categories of MUSTS:
1. Demand about self
2. Demand about others
3. Demand about world life conditions
Putting All of these musts into action is called MUSTURBATION.
Low Frustration Tolerance
Personal philosophy maintaing that one should not have to do anything unpleasant or uncomfortable. This could lead to frustation in obtaining goals.
Discomfort - individual comfort level is threatned
Ego - related to low frustration tolerance. individual sense of self worth is threatened.
What is common in both of these, individuals have a belief that if don't get want they want the results will be awful or catastrophic.
cognitive therapy - aaron beck
therapist view indiv beliefs as beginning in early childhood and developing throughout life.
Early childhood experiences lead to basic beliefs about oneself and one's world. These beliefs can be organized into cognitive schemas.
Early mal-adaptive schemas
these are schemas that indiv assume to be true about themselves and their world. They are resistant to change. These schemas are activated in one's world such as job loss.
Five Domains of Early mal-adaptive schemas
1. Disconnection and rejection
Indiv belief that needs for security, caring, acceptance, and empathy may not be met in a predictable way.
2. Impaired, autonomy, and performance
Schemas that suggest indiv that cannot handle their responsibilities well or function independently and that they have failed and continue to do so.
3. Impaired limits
Schemas concerning difficulty and respecting the rights of others, in being cooperative, and in restraining their own behavior.
4. Other Directedness
This deals with putting the needs of others before one's own needs in order to be loved.
5. Over vigilance and inhibition
These are beliefs that one must suppress feelings and choices or meet high expectations of performance.
How patients think about the world and their important belief and assumptions about people, events, and the environment.
5 types of Schemas
1. Cognitive conceptual
Provides way for storing, interpretating, and making meaning of our world.
2. Affective - both positive and neg feelings
3. Physiological - perceptions of physical functions i.e. panic reaction
4. Behavioral - actions that are taken
5. Motivational - these often initiate action that are related to behavioral
Goal of Cognitive Therapy
To remove biases or distortions in thinking so individuals may function more effectively.
it stems from dissatisfaction with psychoanalysis. William Glasser thought that it taught people to look to the past
to blame others for their current behaviors. Based on choice theory, people are responsible for their lives and for what they do, feel, and think.
Pictures of Reality
Individuals have perceptions of reality but they cannot know reality itself. People's perception of reality often differ. Perception of reality determines behavior - actions, thoughts, and feelings.
We develop pictures in our heads to satisfy innate needs. As needs are met, we store pics of people, objects, or events that satisfy us. The pics are stored in the quality world.
4 Components of Total Behavior
Doing - active behavior
Thinking - thoughts
Feelings - happiness, satisfaction
Physiology - bodily mechanisms
We have more control over are thinking and acting, in spite of how we feel.
Changing our doing and thinking will lead to change in our feelings and physiology - William glasser says this is key to changing behavior
Goals of Reality Therapy
to meet their psychological needs - survival, freedom, power, belonging, and fun.
Process of Reality therapy
establish a friendly environment or build rapport with client
explore total behavior - looking into how well the client is meeting their psychological needs
Develop plan of action
Commitment to plan - written or oral agreement between client and therapist
Strategies for Reality therapy
Questioning - helps enter into the clients inner world to gather more information
Being positive - look for behaviors that clients use to fulfill needs
Metaphors - use clients language
Humor - used to build relationships
Confrontation - addressing the person's behavior
Feminist therapy - types of feminist therapists
Different types feminist therapists: radical and liberal
Both emphasize the political nature of the individual and the role of social institutions. They are both recognize the importance of anger as an appropriate response to social pressures.
Goals of Feminist Therapy
Therapy for change not adjustment - symptom removal is not enough. recognizing how life circumstances, pain, and symptoms are related can bring about change rather than adjustment.
Self nurturance and self-esteem - refers to taking care of oneself and meeting one's own needs.
Balancing relational and instrumental strengths - clients should become more independent and to take action in their lives but also develop meaningful relationships with others.
Body image and sensuality - helps indiv accept their body and their sexuality. And not to use the standards of others to criticize their physicality.
Affirming Diversity - valuing cultural differences of clients
Empowerment and social action - emphasizes the need for women to be aware of gender role stereotyping, sexism, and discrimination, and then to work toward changing this treatment.
Techniques of Feminist Therapy
Gender Role Analysis - identify and analyze various gender role messages that one has experienced during life.
Gender Role Intervention - therapist provide clients insight about social issues as they affect the clients psychological problem.
Power Analysis - increasing clients awareness of the differences between the power of men and women in society.
Power Intervention - therapist strengthens a clients sense of self through reinforcing their statements or giving information.
Assertiveness Training - you teach the client assertiveness skills
Reframing and Relabeling - changing the frame of reference for lookimng at an individuals behavior. It is used to help indiv understand how societal pressures can add to their problem.
As a result of reframing the situation, they Relabel the problem to take into account society's role.
Murray Bowen developed inter-generational family therapy.
Examines the impact of the parents interaction with their own family of origin as it affects their interaction with their children.
Differentiation of Self
Awareness of feelings and thoughts particularly the ability to distinguish between the two. If present, person has sense of self.
When there is stress between two people in a family, they will bring in a third member to dilute anxiety or tension.
Nuclear Family Emotional Systems
Family likely to be unstable unless members of the family are each well differentiated.
Spouses select partners with similar levels of differentiation.
Family Projection Process
When there is low levels of differentiation in marriage partners, they may project their stress onto one child.
When children receive too much stress because of over-involvement in the family they may try to separate themselves from the family i.e. running away or withdraw emotionally
Looks at previous generations. After many generations of fused couples, one would find highly dsyfunctional families who are vulnernable to stress and lack of differentiation between thoughts and feelings.
How one functioned in the family when they were younger would impact how one acts as parent.
Extends model to societal functioning - the model being the multi-generational. If there are stresses on societies, they are more likely to move toward un-differentiation.
Family Therapy Techniques
Evaluation interview - take family history and attend to triangles within the family. Also look at the level of differentiation within family members.
Geno-grams- diagram families and includes information about families. Will help suggest patterns of differentiation that reach far back in family origin.
Interpretation - interpret the geno so they can understand dynamics within the family.
De-triangulation- try to separate parts of a triangle directly. Helps develop strategies to deal with the impact of a family members emotional stress on another family member.