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BIO 181 Exam 2 Vocab
Terms in this set (23)
A theory that the complex eukaryotic cells of today arose through the combination of prokaryotic species into one.
The Theory of Endosymbiosis
A type of cell that is lacking a nucleus or any other kind of membrane-bound organelle.
Evidence of earlier life on earth preserved in rock, dirt, or amber.
A type of cell containing a membrane-bound nucleus as well as other organelles.
A small circular bit of DNA that is passed between bacteria during conjugation - allowing the exchange of genetic information.
Found in Eukaryotic cells, Examples include the nucleus, lysosome, mitochondria, and chloroplasts.
Membrane Bound Organelles
A type of prokaryote that generally reproduces asexually through binary fission, but can sometimes pass genetic information to other similar prokaryotes.
The process of genetic exchange in bacteria where one donor bacteria passes a plasmid to a recipient.
The cytoplasmic division of a cell at the end of mitosis or meiosis, bringing about the separation into two daughter cells.
The result of meiosis: a reproductive cell with a single set of unpaired chromosomes.
The process of cell division resulting in diploid cells - occurring in the somatic cells of an organism's body.
The fusion of chromosomes at the start of meiosis.
Identical copies formed by the replication of a chromosome.
If a haploid cell has n chromosomes, this type of cell has 2n chromosomes. Comprising the majority of your body cells.
The stage of meiosis where the chromosomes become visible and crossing over occurs.
A form of signaling that acts locally between cells that are close neighbors.
A form of communication where the cell acts locally by signaling to itself.
A form of signaling that acts across long distances within the body of the organism. The ligands in these cases are called hormones.
A form of communication between single-celled organisms - where if the population reaches a critical threshold, the whole group engages in a shared behavior.
A part of many signal transduction pathways where a series of kinase proteins transfer phosphate groups to molecules activating them.
The mechanism where a signal is transmitted into a cell and ultimately resulting in some change in gene expression.
A complex colony of bacteria and glycoproteins that can look rather slime-like.
A form of paracrine signaling that is vital to the working of our nervous system - the connection point between two nerve cells.
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