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87 terms

Ap Psychology Final

STUDY
PLAY
The Hindsight Bias refers to people's tendency to
exaggerate their ability to have forseen the outcome of past events
The process of replication is most likely to be facilitated by
operational definitions
In order to learn about the political attitudes of all students enrolled at Arizona State University, Professor Marlow randomly selected 800 of these students to complete a questionnaire. In this instance, all the students enrolled at Arizona State are considered to be a
population
In order to learn about the TV viewing habits of all the childern attending Oakbridge School, Professor DeVries randomly selected and interviewed 50 of the schools students. In this instance, all the children attending the school are considered to be a
population
In order to study the development of relationships, Dr.Rajiv carefully observed and recorded patterns of verbal and non-verbal behaviors among men and women in singles bars. Which research method did Dr.Rajiv employ?
naturalistic observation
Which of the folowing statistical measures is most helpful for indicating the extent to which high school grades predict college grades?
correlation coefficients
Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the weakest degree of relationship between the two variables?
-.12
An extensive survey revealed that children with relatively high self-steem tend to picture God as kind and loving, whereas those with lower self-esteem tend to perceive God as angry. The researchers concluded that the children's self esteem had apparently influenced their views of God. This conclusion best illustrates the danger of
assuming that correlation proves causation
Abdul has volunteered to participate in an experiment evalutating the effectiveness of aspirin. Neither he nor the experimenters know hether the pills he takes during the experiment contain aspirin or are merely placebos. The investigators are apparently making use of
The double blind procedure
In order to study the effects of noise on worker productivity, researchers have one group of subjects work in a noisy room and a second group work in a quiet room. To ensure that any differences in productivity of the two groups actually result from the different noise levels to which the groups are exposed, the researchers would use
random assignment
Knowing the difference between an experimental condition and a control condition is most relevant to understanding the nature of
independant variables
Professor Woo noticed that the distribution of student's scores on her last biology class had an extremely small standard deviation. This indicates that the
students scores tended to be very similar to one another
On a 10-item test three students in Proffesor Hsin's advanced chemisty seminar received scores of 2,5,and 8 respectively. For this distribution of test scores, the standard deviation is equal to the square root of
6
Psychological differences between the genders are
far outweighed by gender similarities
In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal travels from the ______ of a single neuron
Dendrites to the cell body to the axon
The movement of postitively charged ions across the membrane of a neuron can produce a
action potential
The depolarization of a neural membrane can create a
action potential
An all or none response pattern is characteristic of the
initiation of neural impulses
When the release of ACh is blocked the result is,
muscular paralysis
The peripheral nervous system is to sensory neurons as the central nervous system is to
interneurons
Motor neurons are an important part of the
peripheral nervous system
When Mr.Valdez thought his 1 year old daughter had fallen down the stairs his hearbeat accelerated, his blood pressure rose, and he began to perspire heavily. Mr Valdez's state of arousal was activated by his____ nervous system.
sympathetic nervous system
The knee-jerk reaction reflex is controlled by interneurons in the
spinal cord
Neural networks refer to
interconnected clusters of neurons in the central nervous system
Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into
the bloodstream
The chemical messengers of the endocrine system are called
hormones
The best way to detect enlarged fluid-filled brain regionsin some patients who have schizophrenia is to use a
MRI
The concentration of glucose in active regions of the brain underlies the usefulness of a
PET scan
Your life would be most immediatly threatened if you suffered the destruction of the
medulla
The process of anticipationg the you will be punished for misbehaving takes place within the
association areas
After Terry lost a finger in an industrial accident, the area of his sensory cortex devoted to receiving input from that finger gradually became very responsive to sensory input from his adjacent fingers. This best illustrates
plasticity
In a recent car accident, Tamiko sustained damage to his right cerebral hemisphere. This injury is most likely to reduce Tamiko's ability to
facially express emotions
Research on left handedness suggests that
genes or prenatal factors play a role in handedness
You typically fail to consciously perceive that your own nose is in your line of vision. This best illustrates
selective attention
At 3 o'clock in the morning, John has already slept for 4 hours. As long as his sleep continues we can expect an increasing occurrence of
REM sleep
Terry has not had a decent night of sleep in over a week. If this sleep deprivation continues, he will become increasingly susceptible to
viral infections
Which of the following is the best advice for a person concerned about occasional insomnia?
Relax and drink a big glass of milk before bedtime
While Bev was hyptonized, her therapist suggested that during the next several days she would have a strong desire to eat well balanced meals. The therapist was apparently making use of
posthypnotic suggestion
Which of is true of alchohal
in large doses it is a depressent, in small doses it a depressant.
Alcohol consumption is least likely to make people more
self conscious
Sensation is to____ as perception is to_____
detection;interpretation
Patients negative experiences about the outcome of a surgical can increase their postoperative experience of pan. This best illusrates the importance of
top-down processing
Although Manuek was sitting right next to his parents, he smelled a skunk minutes before they did. Apparently manuel has a lower____ for skunk odor than his parents have.
Absolute Threshold
The fact that fear may increase your sensitivitly to almost imperceptible pain stimulus is of most relevance to
signal detection theory
News about the supposed effects of briefly presented messages on moviegoers' consumption of popcorn and coca-cola involved the false claims regarding
subliminial stimulation
After listening to your high-volumne car stereo for 15 minutes, you fail to realize how loudly the music is blasting. This best illustrates
sensory adaptation
The local fire department sounds the 12 o'clock whistle. The process by which your ears convert the sound waves from the siren into neural impulses is an example of
transduction
Experiencing a greeen afterimage of a red object is most easily explained by
the opponent-process theory
Brightness is to light as __________ is to sound
loudness
Damage to the basilar membrane is most likely to result in
nerve deafness
Our experience of pain may be intensified when we perceive that others are experiencing pain. This best illustrates the importance of
top-down processing
The organization of two-dimensional retinal images into three-dimensional preceptions is called
depth perception
An example of fundamental attribution error is illustrated in our tendency to underestimate the extent to which others' behavior is influenced by
assigned roles
Rhonda has just learned that her neighbor Patricia was involved in an automobile accident at a nearby intersection. The tendency to make the fundamental attribution error may lead Rhonda to conclude
Patricia's recklessness has finally gotten her into trouble
Philip Zimbardo devised a simulated prison and randomly assigned college students to serve as prisoners or guards. This experiment best illustrated the impact of
role-playing on attitudes
Solomon Asch reported that individuals conformed to a group's judgment of the lengths of lines
even when the group judgment was clearly incorrect
In 1942, reserve police officers obeyed orders to kill some 1500 jews in the village of Jozefow, Poland. This incident illustrated that people are most likely to be destructively obedient when
they perceive their orders to come from legitimate authority figures
How does the presence of observers affect a person's performance?
It improves performance on easy tasks and hinders a person's performance on difficult tasks
In which of the following groups is social loafing least likely?
factory workers who are each paid on the basis of the number of bicycles each assembes individually
After an exciting football game in which the home team loses by one point, a crowd of fans throws bottles and begins to tear up the field. This behavior is best understoon in terms of
deindividuation
Nora, Ko, Jan and May each think that Ms. Akey may be a slightly better teacher than Mr. Schwenke. After discussion why each of them believe this to be so, they all conclude that Ms. Akey is defininely a much better teach than Mr. Schwenke. This episode provides an example of
polarization
Prejudice is best defined as
An unjustifiabe attitude towrds a group and its members
Most children believe their school is better then the other schools in town. This best illustrates
ingroup bias
Government officials who emphasize that African Americans are personally responsible for the economically disadvantaged position of their ethnic group is most likely to promote
prejudice
The mere exposure effect most directly contributes to the positive relationship between _____ and liking.
proximity
When 68 year old Mrs. Blake had a flat tire on a fairly lisolated highway, she recieved help from a passerby in less than 10 minutes. One year later, she had a flat tire on a busy freeway and an hour elapsed before someone finally stopped to offer assistance. Mrs Blake's experience best illustrates
the bystander effect
Darley and Latane observed that most university students failed to help a person having a epileptic seixure when they thought there were four other witnesses to the emergency. The student's failure to help is best explained in terms of
their feelings of limited responsibility
simple non zero sum games have been used in laboratory settings in order to study
social traps
The success of interracial cooperative learning in classroom settings best illustrates the value of___ for reducring racial conflict
superordinate goals
Equity and self-disclosure are important to the development of
companionate love
What determined whether college freshman who had been randomly paired a Welcome Week dance liked eachother?
physical attractiveness
Parents who discipline their children with beatings are often teaching aggression through the process of
modeling
High rates of violence are most common among those who experience minimal levels of
father care
Following 9/11, some outraged people lashed out at innocent Arab-Americans. This venting of hostility can best be explained in terms of
scape goat theory
Anton is the only juror to favor acquittal on a murder trial. To influence the majority he should
be self-confident and consitent in expressing his view point.
Deindividuation refers to
a loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
When the participants in Milgram's study were later surveyed about taking part in the research, most reported that they
did not regret taking part in the experiment
In Milgram's obedience experiments, teacher exhibited a somewhat lower compliance with an experimenter's orders when
the experiment was not associated with a prestigious institution like Yale University
Professor Maslova attends faculty meeting simply to gain the approvaly of the college dean. Professor Maslova's behavior exemplifies the importance of
normative social influence
Professor Smith told one class that alcohol consumption has been found to increase sexual desire. He informed another class that alcohol consumption has been found to reduce sexual appetite. The fact that neither class was surprised by the information the recieved best illustrates the power of
the hindsight bias
According to Emily's grandfather, Adolf Hitler's obvious emotional stabiltiy made it clear from the beginning days of his international conflcits that Germany would inevitably lost World War II. This claim best illustrates
the hindsight bias
Our tendency to believe we know more then do illustrates
illusory correlation
Replication involves
repeating a previous research study
Which procedure helps to ensure that the participants in a survey are representiative of a larger population?
random sampling
Correlational research is most useful for purposes of
prediction
To graphically represent the correlation between two variables, researchers often construct a
scatterplot
To determine whether the strength of people's self esteem is related to their income levels researchers would most likely make us of
correlational research