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The Hindsight Bias refers to people's tendency to

exaggerate their ability to have forseen the outcome of past events

The process of replication is most likely to be facilitated by

operational definitions

In order to learn about the political attitudes of all students enrolled at Arizona State University, Professor Marlow randomly selected 800 of these students to complete a questionnaire. In this instance, all the students enrolled at Arizona State are considered to be a


In order to learn about the TV viewing habits of all the childern attending Oakbridge School, Professor DeVries randomly selected and interviewed 50 of the schools students. In this instance, all the children attending the school are considered to be a


In order to study the development of relationships, Dr.Rajiv carefully observed and recorded patterns of verbal and non-verbal behaviors among men and women in singles bars. Which research method did Dr.Rajiv employ?

naturalistic observation

Which of the folowing statistical measures is most helpful for indicating the extent to which high school grades predict college grades?

correlation coefficients

Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the weakest degree of relationship between the two variables?


An extensive survey revealed that children with relatively high self-steem tend to picture God as kind and loving, whereas those with lower self-esteem tend to perceive God as angry. The researchers concluded that the children's self esteem had apparently influenced their views of God. This conclusion best illustrates the danger of

assuming that correlation proves causation

Abdul has volunteered to participate in an experiment evalutating the effectiveness of aspirin. Neither he nor the experimenters know hether the pills he takes during the experiment contain aspirin or are merely placebos. The investigators are apparently making use of

The double blind procedure

In order to study the effects of noise on worker productivity, researchers have one group of subjects work in a noisy room and a second group work in a quiet room. To ensure that any differences in productivity of the two groups actually result from the different noise levels to which the groups are exposed, the researchers would use

random assignment

Knowing the difference between an experimental condition and a control condition is most relevant to understanding the nature of

independant variables

Professor Woo noticed that the distribution of student's scores on her last biology class had an extremely small standard deviation. This indicates that the

students scores tended to be very similar to one another

On a 10-item test three students in Proffesor Hsin's advanced chemisty seminar received scores of 2,5,and 8 respectively. For this distribution of test scores, the standard deviation is equal to the square root of


Psychological differences between the genders are

far outweighed by gender similarities

In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal travels from the ______ of a single neuron

Dendrites to the cell body to the axon

The movement of postitively charged ions across the membrane of a neuron can produce a

action potential

The depolarization of a neural membrane can create a

action potential

An all or none response pattern is characteristic of the

initiation of neural impulses

When the release of ACh is blocked the result is,

muscular paralysis

The peripheral nervous system is to sensory neurons as the central nervous system is to


Motor neurons are an important part of the

peripheral nervous system

When Mr.Valdez thought his 1 year old daughter had fallen down the stairs his hearbeat accelerated, his blood pressure rose, and he began to perspire heavily. Mr Valdez's state of arousal was activated by his____ nervous system.

sympathetic nervous system

The knee-jerk reaction reflex is controlled by interneurons in the

spinal cord

Neural networks refer to

interconnected clusters of neurons in the central nervous system

Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into

the bloodstream

The chemical messengers of the endocrine system are called


The best way to detect enlarged fluid-filled brain regionsin some patients who have schizophrenia is to use a


The concentration of glucose in active regions of the brain underlies the usefulness of a

PET scan

Your life would be most immediatly threatened if you suffered the destruction of the


The process of anticipationg the you will be punished for misbehaving takes place within the

association areas

After Terry lost a finger in an industrial accident, the area of his sensory cortex devoted to receiving input from that finger gradually became very responsive to sensory input from his adjacent fingers. This best illustrates


In a recent car accident, Tamiko sustained damage to his right cerebral hemisphere. This injury is most likely to reduce Tamiko's ability to

facially express emotions

Research on left handedness suggests that

genes or prenatal factors play a role in handedness

You typically fail to consciously perceive that your own nose is in your line of vision. This best illustrates

selective attention

At 3 o'clock in the morning, John has already slept for 4 hours. As long as his sleep continues we can expect an increasing occurrence of

REM sleep

Terry has not had a decent night of sleep in over a week. If this sleep deprivation continues, he will become increasingly susceptible to

viral infections

Which of the following is the best advice for a person concerned about occasional insomnia?

Relax and drink a big glass of milk before bedtime

While Bev was hyptonized, her therapist suggested that during the next several days she would have a strong desire to eat well balanced meals. The therapist was apparently making use of

posthypnotic suggestion

Which of is true of alchohal

in large doses it is a depressent, in small doses it a depressant.

Alcohol consumption is least likely to make people more

self conscious

Sensation is to____ as perception is to_____


Patients negative experiences about the outcome of a surgical can increase their postoperative experience of pan. This best illusrates the importance of

top-down processing

Although Manuek was sitting right next to his parents, he smelled a skunk minutes before they did. Apparently manuel has a lower____ for skunk odor than his parents have.

Absolute Threshold

The fact that fear may increase your sensitivitly to almost imperceptible pain stimulus is of most relevance to

signal detection theory

News about the supposed effects of briefly presented messages on moviegoers' consumption of popcorn and coca-cola involved the false claims regarding

subliminial stimulation

After listening to your high-volumne car stereo for 15 minutes, you fail to realize how loudly the music is blasting. This best illustrates

sensory adaptation

The local fire department sounds the 12 o'clock whistle. The process by which your ears convert the sound waves from the siren into neural impulses is an example of


Experiencing a greeen afterimage of a red object is most easily explained by

the opponent-process theory

Brightness is to light as __________ is to sound


Damage to the basilar membrane is most likely to result in

nerve deafness

Our experience of pain may be intensified when we perceive that others are experiencing pain. This best illustrates the importance of

top-down processing

The organization of two-dimensional retinal images into three-dimensional preceptions is called

depth perception

An example of fundamental attribution error is illustrated in our tendency to underestimate the extent to which others' behavior is influenced by

assigned roles

Rhonda has just learned that her neighbor Patricia was involved in an automobile accident at a nearby intersection. The tendency to make the fundamental attribution error may lead Rhonda to conclude

Patricia's recklessness has finally gotten her into trouble

Philip Zimbardo devised a simulated prison and randomly assigned college students to serve as prisoners or guards. This experiment best illustrated the impact of

role-playing on attitudes

Solomon Asch reported that individuals conformed to a group's judgment of the lengths of lines

even when the group judgment was clearly incorrect

In 1942, reserve police officers obeyed orders to kill some 1500 jews in the village of Jozefow, Poland. This incident illustrated that people are most likely to be destructively obedient when

they perceive their orders to come from legitimate authority figures

How does the presence of observers affect a person's performance?

It improves performance on easy tasks and hinders a person's performance on difficult tasks

In which of the following groups is social loafing least likely?

factory workers who are each paid on the basis of the number of bicycles each assembes individually

After an exciting football game in which the home team loses by one point, a crowd of fans throws bottles and begins to tear up the field. This behavior is best understoon in terms of


Nora, Ko, Jan and May each think that Ms. Akey may be a slightly better teacher than Mr. Schwenke. After discussion why each of them believe this to be so, they all conclude that Ms. Akey is defininely a much better teach than Mr. Schwenke. This episode provides an example of


Prejudice is best defined as

An unjustifiabe attitude towrds a group and its members

Most children believe their school is better then the other schools in town. This best illustrates

ingroup bias

Government officials who emphasize that African Americans are personally responsible for the economically disadvantaged position of their ethnic group is most likely to promote


The mere exposure effect most directly contributes to the positive relationship between _____ and liking.


When 68 year old Mrs. Blake had a flat tire on a fairly lisolated highway, she recieved help from a passerby in less than 10 minutes. One year later, she had a flat tire on a busy freeway and an hour elapsed before someone finally stopped to offer assistance. Mrs Blake's experience best illustrates

the bystander effect

Darley and Latane observed that most university students failed to help a person having a epileptic seixure when they thought there were four other witnesses to the emergency. The student's failure to help is best explained in terms of

their feelings of limited responsibility

simple non zero sum games have been used in laboratory settings in order to study

social traps

The success of interracial cooperative learning in classroom settings best illustrates the value of___ for reducring racial conflict

superordinate goals

Equity and self-disclosure are important to the development of

companionate love

What determined whether college freshman who had been randomly paired a Welcome Week dance liked eachother?

physical attractiveness

Parents who discipline their children with beatings are often teaching aggression through the process of


High rates of violence are most common among those who experience minimal levels of

father care

Following 9/11, some outraged people lashed out at innocent Arab-Americans. This venting of hostility can best be explained in terms of

scape goat theory

Anton is the only juror to favor acquittal on a murder trial. To influence the majority he should

be self-confident and consitent in expressing his view point.

Deindividuation refers to

a loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity

When the participants in Milgram's study were later surveyed about taking part in the research, most reported that they

did not regret taking part in the experiment

In Milgram's obedience experiments, teacher exhibited a somewhat lower compliance with an experimenter's orders when

the experiment was not associated with a prestigious institution like Yale University

Professor Maslova attends faculty meeting simply to gain the approvaly of the college dean. Professor Maslova's behavior exemplifies the importance of

normative social influence

Professor Smith told one class that alcohol consumption has been found to increase sexual desire. He informed another class that alcohol consumption has been found to reduce sexual appetite. The fact that neither class was surprised by the information the recieved best illustrates the power of

the hindsight bias

According to Emily's grandfather, Adolf Hitler's obvious emotional stabiltiy made it clear from the beginning days of his international conflcits that Germany would inevitably lost World War II. This claim best illustrates

the hindsight bias

Our tendency to believe we know more then do illustrates

illusory correlation

Replication involves

repeating a previous research study

Which procedure helps to ensure that the participants in a survey are representiative of a larger population?

random sampling

Correlational research is most useful for purposes of


To graphically represent the correlation between two variables, researchers often construct a


To determine whether the strength of people's self esteem is related to their income levels researchers would most likely make us of

correlational research

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