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73 terms

psych. chapter 5 and 6

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sensation
the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment
perception
process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
bottom up processing
analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works upto the brains integration of sensory info
top down processing
info processing guiding by higher level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations
psychophysics
study of relationships between physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity and our psychological experience of them
absolute threshold
minimum stimulation needed to detect a particulat stimulus 50percent of the time
signal detection theory
theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus "signal" amid background stimulation "noise" assumes there is no single absolute hreshold and that detection depends partly on a persons experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue.
subliminal
below ones absolute threshold for conscious awareness
priming
the often unconscious activation of certain associations thus predisposing ones perception, memory, or response
difference threshold
minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50percent of the time. we experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference
Weber's law
the principle that, to be percieved as differenct, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage
sensory adaptation
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
transduction
conversion of one form of energy into another. in sensation, the transforming of a stimulus energies, such as sights sounds and smells onto neural impulses our brains can interpret
wavelength
distance from the beek of one light or sound wave to the peak of the other. electromagnetic wavelengths vary from short blips of cosmic rays to long pulses of radio transmission
hue
dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light
intensity
amount of energy in light or sound wave, whcih we percieve as brightness or loudness, as determined by waves amplitude.
pupil
adjustable opening in center of eye through which light enters
iris
ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening
lens
transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina
accommodation
process by which the eyes lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina
visual capture
tendency for vision to dominate other senses
gestalt
organized whole. gestalkt psychologist emphasized our tendency to intergrate prieces of info into meaningful wholes
figure- ground
organization of the visual field into objects that stand out from their surroundings
grouping
perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups
depth perception
the ablity to see objects in 3d although the images that strike the retina are 2d.. allows us to judge distances
visual cliff
laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals
binocular cues
depth cues, such as retinal disparity and convergence that depend on the use of two eyes
retinal disparity
binocular cue for perceiving depth by comparing images from the two eyeballs, the brain computes distance, the greater the distance the greater the dispartity (difference)
convergence
a binocular cue for percieving depth, the extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an object. the greater the inward strain the closer the object
monocular cues
depth cues, such as interpostion and linear perspective, available to either eye alone
phi phenomenon
an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick sucession
perceptual constancy
perceving objects as unchanging (having consistent lightness,color,shape, and size) even as illumination and retinal images change
perceptual adaptation
in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field
perceptual set
mental predispostion to percieve one thing and not another
human factor psychology
branch of psych that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and pyshical enviorments can be made safe and easy to use
esp
extrasensory perception- controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input
parapsychology
the study of paranormal phenomena, including esp and psychokinesis
retina
light snsitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual info.
acuity
sharpness of vision
nearsightedness
can only see near objects clearly
farsightedness
can only see far objects clearly
optic nerve
comprised of ganglion cells, carries neural impulses to brain from eye
blind spot
region of retina where optic nerve leaves the eye. no rods or cones here
fovea
retinas point of central focus contains only cones, images here are clearest
feature detectors
loctated in visual cortex of brain, nerve cells that selectively respond to specific features such as movement shape or angle
parallel processing
infor processing in wich several aspects of a stimulus are processed simultaneiously
trichromatic theory
theory that maintains that the retina contains red blue and green sensitive color receptors that incombo can produce perception or any color. explains first stage of color processing developed by young helmholtz
opponent processing theory
color vision depends on pairs of oppossing retinal processes (red green, blue yellow, white black) explains second stage of color processing
color constancy
perception that familiar objects have consistent color despite changes in illumination that shift the wavelengs they reflect
pitch
determinded by frq
middle ear
chamber with cochlea containing three bones (hammer anvil and stirrup) concentrate the eardrums vibrations on cochleas oval window
cochlea
coiled, boney fluid fillled tube of inner ear where transduction of sound waves into nerural impulses
inner ear
contains semisircular canals and cochlea, which includes the receptors that transduce sound energy into neural impulses. also contains the vestibular sacs
place theory
maintains that place of mazimum vibration along cochlea ,membrane is basis of pitch determination
frq theory
hearing presumes the rate or frq of nerve impulses in auditory nerve that matches frq of a tone enabling us to sense it pitch
pheromones
is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.
kinesthesis
the ability to feel movements of the limbs and . our vestibular sense relies on semicircular canals and vestibular sacs in the inner ear to sense our head, thus our whole bodys position and movement, letting us maintain our balance
pinna
the externally visible cartilaginous structure of the external ear
colorblindness
happens to 1/50 ppl, ussually male becuase the defect is genetically sex linked.
auditory cortex
region of the brain that is responsible for processing of auditory (sound) information. It is located on the temporal lobe, and performs the basics of hearing; pitch and volume.
basilar membranes
incoming vibrations cause the cochleas membrane (oval window to vibrate, jostling the fluid that fills the tube, motion causes rupples in the basilar membrane which is lined with hair cells. rippling of basilar membrene bends these hair cells triggering an impulse
relative motion
as we move, objects that are actually stable may appear to move. the nearer the object is to you, the faster it seems to move. objects beyond fixation point appear to move with you and the farther away the object is the faster they move. brain uses these cues to help determine the objects distance
closure
our method of grouping we fill in gaps to create a complete whole object.
proximity
our method of grouping where we group nearby figures together
similiarity
our method of grouping where we group figures that are similar to each other
after image illusion
ex: when you stare at a green square for a while then look at a pice of paper, you see red. green's opponent color. developed by hering.
shape constancy
this allows us to percieve the form of familiar objects as constant even while our retinal images of them change
interposition
if one object partially blocks our view of another, we percieve it as closer
psychokinesis
mind over matter, claims that you can levitate a table etc.
telepathy
mind to mind communication
prosopagnosia
disorder of face perception where the ability to recognize faces is impaired, while the ability to recognize other objects may be relatively intact.
selective attention
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, as in a cocktail party effect
bipolar cells
eye neurons that receive information from the retinal cells and distribute information to the ganglion cells