Business Exam 2
Terms in this set (58)
a psychological response to demands that possess certain stakes for the person and that tax or exceed the persons capacity or resources.
The demands that cause people to experience stress
The negative consequences that occur when demands tax or exceed a persons capacity or resources
Transactional Theory of Stress
The transaction relating to stress is between the person and their environment.
Depending on the amount of demands that a person is confronted with and the amount of resources they have to deal with the demands, stress may either be in abundance or avoided entirely.
Ex of this- father working at TGI Friday with young kids.
Father A is less stressed because he has his mother nearby to get the kids off the bus, feed them, put to bed.
Father B is extremely stressed- His mom lives in Minnesota and has nobody to watch kids after school, has to pay for after school care.
The difference is in the resources available to the men
Stressors we receive from working
Lead to growth and development. Pride and enthusiasm
work challenge stressor - a strong sense that the amount of time you have to do a task is just not quite enough
work challenge stressor that refers to the degree to which the requirements of the work, in terms of knowledge, skills, and abilities, tax or exceed the capabilities of the person who is responsible for performing the work
work challenge stressor- refers to the nature of the obligations that a person has toward others. Generally speaking, the level of responsibility in a job is higher when the number, scope and importance of the obligations is higher
stressful demands that people tend to perceive as hindering their progress toward personal accomplishments or goal attainment. Most often trigger negative emotions such as anxiety and anger
work related hindrance stressor- refers to conflicting expectations that other people may have of us. (A call operator- spend as little time on the line with one person, but also be responsive to questions and concerns) Cant meet both expectations
work related hindrance stressor- A lack of information about what needs to be done in a role, as well as unpredictability regarding the consequences of performance in that role.
Most often experienced by new employees who have not been around long enough to receive instructions from supervisors or observe and model the role behaviors of more senior colleagues. (Employees sometimes asked to work on projects in which they are given very few instructions or guidelines about how things are supposed to be done. In this case, they do not know how much money can be spent, how long its supposed to take, or what exactly the finished product is supposed to look like.) Can also be in college students when a new professor is very vague about course requirements
work related hindrance stressor- Occurs when the number of demanding roles a person holds is so high that the person simply cannot perform some or all of the roles effectively. **
This source of stress is more prevalent than ambiguity or conflict
* (The workload for executives and managers who work in investment banking, consulting, and law is so high that 80-hour workweeks are becoming the norm.)
Work related hindrance stressor- refers to the relatively minor day to day demands that get in the way of accomplishing the things that we really want to accomplish. (Having to deal with unneccessary paperwork, office equipment malfunctions, annoying interactions with abrasive coworkers, less communications)
Stressors experienced outside of work
Family time demands
A challenge stressor @ home- the time that a person commits to participate in an array of family activities and responsibilities. (ex: traveling, social events, organized activities, hosting parties, planning and making home improvements)
Challenge stressor @ home- Activities include participation in formal education programs, music lessons, sports-related training, hobby related self education, participation in local government, or volunteer work.
Positive Life Events
Challenge stressor @ home- sources of nonwork challenge stressors.
Home hindrance stressors
negative events that happen at home
Home hindrance a special form of role conflict in which the demands of a work role hinder the fulfillment of the demands of a family role (or vice versa)
Home Hindrance- refers to conditions that create uncertainties with regard to the loss of livelihood, savings, or the ability to pay expenses
Negative Life Events
Home hindrance- death of a spouse, divorce, jail, fired,
refers to the behaviors and thoughts that people use to manage both the stressful demands they face and the emotions associated with those stressful demands
the interpretation of a stimulus as stressful or not
perceptions regarding our ability to cope with an event that follows primary appraisal- What should I do?
What can I do?
involves the set of physical activities that are used to deal with a stressful situation
refers to the thoughts that are involved in trying to deal with a stressful situation
Problem Focused Coping
refers to the behaviors and cognitions intended to manage the successful situation itself
Emotion focused coping
refers to the various ways in which people manage their own emotional reactions to stressful demands
Type A Personality
strong sense of time urgency, tend to be impatient, hard-driving, competitive, controlling, aggressive, hositle. More likely to get coronary heart disease. More likely to see demands as stressful
Type A personality supports- social, emotional and instrumental
social- the help that people receive when theyre confronted with stressful demands
1. Instrumental- the help people receive that can be used to address the demand directly
ie: overloaded w work and coworker offers to help
2. Emotional- being understanding and sympathetic to the situation
illness, high blood pressure, back pain, stomach aches
depression, anxiety, irritability, forgetfulness, inability to think clearly, reduced confidence, burnout
alcohol and drug use, teeth grinding, compulsive behaviors, overeating
Opposite of A- less stressed and work steadily
a set of energetic forces that originates both within and outside an employee, initiates work-related effort, and determines its direction, intensity, and persistence
Latin word for motivation which means, "to move"
Importance of Motivation
A critical consideration because effective job performance often requires high levels of ability and motivation
Motivation is what we are doing at a given moment
What are you going to do right now?
How hard are you going to work on it?
How long are you going to work on it?
a contemporary synonym, more or less, for high levels of intensity and persistence in work effort
Theories of Motivation
Theories that attempt to summarize the key factors that foster high motivation
describes the cognitive process that employees go through to make choices among different voluntary responses
Employee behavior is directed toward pleasure and away from pain or toward certain outcomes and away from others
3 specific beliefs:
1. that effort will result in performance
2. that performance will result in outcomes
3. that those outcomes will be valuable
youre motivated to do something because you think the outcome will have VALUE.
ex; Firemen dont get a bonus for putting out a fire, do it for the outcome of putting out a fire
Expectancy theory hinders
1. Lack of necessary resources (people, money, equipment)
2. Lack of supportive leadership (want or praise)
3. Low self efficacy (your belief in your ability to do something)
An individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. Increases everytime you do something and you are successful at it
represents the belief that successful performance will result in some outcomes.
Can be hindered by:
-poor methods for measuring performance, as instrumentality could eventually be rewritten to be
-Inadequate budget to provide outcomes, even when performance is high
-Use of policies that reward things besides performance, such as attendance or seniority
-Time delays in doling out rewards
Ex: pats go to disney right after their win
The anticipated value of outcomes
Motivated to perform an activity to earn a reward or avoid punishment. Think EXternal for EXtrinsic
Motivated to perform an activity for its own sake and personal rewards. (feelings)
Goal Setting Theory
Motivation is fostered when employees are given specific and difficult goals rather than no goals, easy goals, or do your best goals
Pay and Valence
Pay has a high valence because money-
Goal Difficulty and Task Performance
Assigning specific and difficult goals gives people a number to shoot for- a "measuring stick" that can be used to tell how hard they need to work and how long
As goals move from moderate to difficult, the intensity and persistence of effort becomes maximized
Motivation is maximized when an employee's ratio of "outcomes" to "inputs" matches those of some "comparison other"
Thus motivation also depends on the outcomes received by other employees
Employees create a "mental ledger"
Ex: A person who comes into work late and gets a raise and you dont
An intrinsic form of motivation derived from the belief that ones work tasks are contributing to some larger purpose
Fostered by 4 beliefs
Meaningfulness (belief of psychological empowerment)
captures the value of a work goal or purpose, relative to a persons own ideals and passions
Self-Determination (belief of psychological empowerment)
reflects a sense of choice in the initiation and continuation of work tasks.
Competence (belief of psychological empowerment)
Captures a persons belief in his or her capability to perform work tasks successfully
Identical to self efficacy
Impact (belief of psychological empowerment)
reflects the sense that a persons actions "make a difference"- that progress is being made toward fulfilling some important purpose
Outcomes versus Inputs
A reevaluation of the inputs an employee brings to a job, often occurring in response to equity distress
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