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BIO 101 exam 2
Terms in this set (98)
Which feature is not found in a prokaryote?
What kind of cell would you expect to have the most mitochondria?
skeletal muscle cell
Cyanide binds with at least one molecule involved in producing ATP. If a cell is exposed to cyanide, most of the cyanide would be found within the
Which organ is likely composed of cells with the greatest amount of SER?
Your stomach cells form a waterproof barrier, therefore they are held together by...
When a blister forms, two layers of skin become separated. Originally they were held together by...
Almost all eukaryotic organisms derive energy directly or indirectly from the sun. Therefore, which organelle is the most important for life as we know it?
When viewing a specimen through a light microscope, scientists use ________ to distinguish the individual components of cells
The ________ is the basic unit of life
Prokaryotes depend on ________ to obtain some materials and to get rid of wastes
Bacteria that lack fimbrae are less likely to
adhere to cell surfaces
What is surrounded by two phospholipid bilayers?
Peroxisomes got their name because hydrogen peroxide is:
produced during their oxidation reactions
In plant cells, the function of the lysosomes is carried out by
What is found both in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
Which of the following is not a component of the endomembrane system?
The process by which a cell engulfs a foreign particle is known as:
What is most likely to have the greatest concentration of smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
a cell that makes steroid hormones
What are found only in plant cells?
Lipids that make up the cell membrane are hydrophobic. Hydrophilic molecules, like glucose, cannot cross this barrier. What major component of the plasma membrane helps glucose get into and out of the cell?
A normal cell has a high concentration of potassium on the inside and a low concentration of potassium on the outside. Also, a normal cell has a low concentration of sodium on the inside and a high concentration on the outside. Yet, the net movement of potassium is into the cell and the net movement of sodium is out of the cell. What type of transport is involved?
An amoeba (a single-celled protist) is placed in a solution. The volume of the cell increases (cell swells). Which statement below is the correct interpretation of this result?
the amoeba is in a hypotonic solution
An intestinal epithelial cell powers the movement of glucose into the cell against its concentration gradient by simultaneously transporting sodium down its concentration gradient. Which transport mechanism is responsible?
secondary active transport
When a woman nurses her baby, proteins are released from the mammary cells, accumulate in the ducts of the breast, and flow out of the nipple. Which process listed below is involved?
Which transport mechanism can bring whole cells into a cell?
Which characteristic of a phospholipid contributes to the fluidity of the membrane?
double bonds in the fatty acid tail
What is the primary function of carbohydrates attached to the exterior of cell membranes?
identification of the cell
Water moves via osmosis
from an area of high concentration of water to one of a lower concentration
The principal force driving movement in diffusion is the
What problem is faced by organisms that live in fresh water?
their bodies tend to take in too much water
Active transport must function continuously because
diffusion is constantly moving solutes in opposite directions
How does the sodium-potassium pump make the interior of the cell negatively charged?
by expelling more cations than are taken in
What is the combination of an electrical gradient and a concentration gradient called?
What happens to the membrane of a vesicle after exocytosis?
it fuses with and becomes part of the plasma membrane
In what important way does receptor-mediated endocytosis differ from phagocytosis?
it brings in only a specifically targeted substance
Food energy is the amount of stored chemical energy in food that is available following digestion and metabolism. The most common value for expressing the amount of available energy in food is:
Water flowing through a dam can be used to generate electricity, which is an example of...
Given that every energy conversion is inefficient, which type of food would feed the most people?
Activation energy is lowered by
The energy used by plants and animals ultimately came from...
Energy is stored long-term in the bonds of _____ and used short-term to perform work from a(n) _____ molecule
DNA replication involves unwinding two strands of parent DNA, copying each strand to synthesize complementary strands, and releasing the parent and daughter DNA. Which of the following accurately describes this process?
this is an anabolic process
What is the best way to judge the relative activation energies between two given chemical reactions?
compare their reaction rates
What is not an example of an energy transformation?
turning on a light switch
The energy released by the hydrolysis of ATP is
providing energy to coupled reactions
What molecule is likely to have the most potential energy?
What is not true about enzymes?
Each one is specific to the particular substrate to which it bonds
An allosteric inhibitor does which of the following?
binds to an enzyme away from the active site and changes the conformation of the active sit, decreases its affinity for the substrate
What analogy best describe the induced-fit model of enzymesubstrate binding?
a hug between two people
What is true as glucose is broken down during cellular respiration?
it is broken down into carbon dioxide
Whenever one molecule is loosing H+ another molecule is accepting them. In cellular respiration, who gained the H+ atoms?
You have a friend who lost 15 pounds of fat on a diet. Where did the fat go?
it was released as CO2 and H2O
Where does cellular respiration occur?
At the end of the citric acid cycle, most of the energy remaining from the original glucose is stored in
Plants have both chloroplasts and mitochondria. Why?
The mitochondria break down sugars produced by photosynthesis to provide energy for the cellular work of the plant
Which activity below would produce lactic acid via anaerobic respiration?
sprinting 100 meters
True or false: Cellular respiration generates ATP.
True or false: Anaerobic cellular respiration generates ATP.
You grew from a single celled zygote into the magnificent specimen that you currently are. What process specifically enabled this growth?
What cellular process listed below might involve mitosis?
In which part of the cell cycle does the cell spend most of its time?
DNA replication happens during
A cell undergoing mitosis in a small mammal contains eight chromosomes. How many chromosomes are there in the mammal's cell at the end of G2 phase?
Two joined copies of a replicated chromosome are called
The result of mitosis is
two genetically identical cells
What might characterize telomeres on the chromosomes of a cancer cell?
telomeres might be the same length after each cell division
What is FALSE about a cell in a malignant tumor?
the cells don't tend to migrate away from the tumor
Required for growth in multicellular organisms
Produces haploid gametes
Replicates nuclear DNA
both mitosis and meiosis
both mitosis and meosis
Replaces damaged cells
Human papillomavirus can cause cervical cancer. The virus encodes E6, a protein that binds p53. Based on this fact and what you know about p53, what effect do you think E6 binding has on p53 activity?
E6 binding marks p53 for degredation
A diploid cell has _______ the number of chromosomes as a haploid cell
An organism's traits are determined by the specific combination of inherited
The first level of DNA organization in a eukaryotic cell is maintained by which molecule?
Identical copies of chromatin held together by cohesin at the centromere are called
Chromosomes are duplicated during what stage of the cell cycle?
Which of the following events does not occur during some stages of interphase?
separation of sister chromatids
The mitotic spindles arise from which cell structure?
Attachment of the mitotic spindle fibers to the kinetochores is a characteristic of which stage of mitosis?
Unpacking of chromosomes and the formation of a new nuclear envelope is a characteristic of which stage of mitosis?
Separation of the sister chromatids is a characteristic of which stage of mitosis?
The chromosomes become visible under a light microscope during which stage of mitosis?
The fusing of Golgi vesicles at the metaphase plate of dividing plant cells forms what structure?
At which of the cell cycle checkpoints do external forces have the greatest influence?
What is the main prerequisite for clearance at the G2 checkpoint?
accurate and complete DNA replication
If the M checkpoint is not cleared, what stage of mitosis will be blocked?
Which protein is a positive regulator that phosphorylates other proteins when activated?
cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)
Many of the negative regulator proteins of the cell cycle were discovered in what type of cells?
Which negative regulatory molecule can trigger cell suicide (apoptosis) if vital cell cycle events do not occur?
___________ are changes to the order of nucleotides in a segment of DNA that codes for a protein.
A gene that codes for a positive cell cycle regulator is called a
A mutated gene that codes for an altered version of Cdk that is active in the absence of cyclin is an
Which molecule is a Cdk inhibitor that is controlled by p53?
Which eukaryotic cell cycle event is missing in binary fission?
FtsZ proteins direct the formation of a _______ that will eventually form the new cell walls of the daughter cells.