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OCR Gateway P1 Key Terms
Terms in this set (74)
A measure of energy
A measure of hotness
What type of scale is energy measured in?
What type of scale is heat (usually) measured in?
What is heat measured in?
What is an example of a unit of temperature?
Used to show how hot an object is using different colours
Specific Heat Capacity
The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one kilogram of a material by one degree celsius
What is the unit of specific heat capacity?
Joules per Kilogram degrees Celsius
Specific latent heat
The amount of energy needed to change the stage of one degree celsius
Why does the temperature not change during a change of state?
The energy is used to break intermolecular bonds
Energy is passed from atom to atom through direct contact
A material which is good at conducing heat energy
A material which is bad at conducting heat energy
Why are metals good thermal and electrical conductors?
Process by which, in a fluid being heated, the warmer part of the mass will rise and the cooler portions will sink.
Anything that flows, a liquid or gas.
electrons which are able to to transfer through a substance
Electromagnetic waves with wavelengths that are longer than visible light but shorter than microwaves
Radiation can only occur in...
What are the best emitters and absorbers of radiation?
Matte, black surfaces
What are the poorest emitters and absorbers of radiation?
Light,smooth and shiny surfaces
What radiation is used by grills and toasters?
What radiation is used by microwave ovens?
Objects which emit energy
Objects which transfer and waste energy
time taken for a type of domestic insulation to 'pay for itself' - to save as much in energy bills as it cost to install.
Cavity wall insulation
Two layers of wall with a gap between them to reduce conduction and convection
Strips of foam and plastic around doors and windows stop hot air going out
Two layers of glass with an air or vacuum gap to stop conduction
The percentage of energy put into a system that does useful work
A vibration about an equilibrium position or shape
The wave's maximum disturbance from its rest point or equilibrium
A wave that moves the medium in a direction perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels
A wave in which the vibration of the medium is parallel to the direction the wave travels
Horizontal distance between the crests or between the troughs of two adjacent waves
How many wave peaks pass a certain point per given time - usually per second
What is frequency measured in?
Lets us see objects
Angle of incidence always...
equals the angle of reflection
A line drawn perpendicular to the surface of the object
Occurs when an object causes a wave to change direction and bend around it
What does the amount of diffraction depend on?
The size of the gap relative to the wavelength
The bending of a wave as it passes at an angle from one medium to another
Refraction doesn't occur if...
the wave crosses the boundary at 90 degrees
Order of electromagnetic spectrum from lowest frequency
Radio Microwave Infrared Visible UV X-ray Gamma
Total Internal Reflection
the complete reflection that takes place within a substance when the angle of incidence of light striking the surface boundary is less than the critical angle
Is the angle at which an incident ray is refracted parallel to the boundary between two optically transparent medium.
a strand of material (commonly glass fibre) through which light can travel
Instrument to visually examine the body which uses TIR
A process where multiple digital data streams are combined into one signal.
A _____ is an optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam.
Properties of a laser beam
Narrow, intense, monochromatic, low divergence
Term applied to two or more waves whose crests (and troughs) arrive at a place at the same time, so that their effects reinforce each other.
(of light or other electromagnetic radiation) having only one wavelength
Very short electromagnetic wave
Line of sight
distance you can see ahead in the direction you are looking
Specific Absorption Rate
the rate of energy absorbed per unit area of tissue mass
waves that vary in wavelength and amplitude
A series of logic 1s and 0s plotted as a function of time.
Anything that interferes with, distorts, or slows down the transmission of information
Digital audio broadcasting used to transmit radio digitally
Layer of electrically charged particles in the thermosphere that absorbs AM radio waves during the day and reflects them back at night.
A device that records ground movements caused by seismic waves as they move through Earth
A type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side
A type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground
Properties of S waves
Transverse, slow moving, travels only through solids
Properties of P waves
Longitudinal, fast moving, travel through both liquids and solids
Electromagnetic waves of frequencies higher than those of violet light.
Sun protection factor
SPF - how many times as long you could spend in the sun without burning
Dangers of UV exposure
Skin cancer, cataracts, premature skin aging
Layer of the stratosphere with a high concentration of ozone; absorbs most of the Sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation
1982 Montreal Protocol
Banned the use of CFCs
Chlorinated Fluorocarbons are chemicals that break down the ozone layer
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