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303 terms

finalbio135

STUDY
PLAY
gas exchange and acid base balance
which of the following represents the lungs overall contribution to homeostasis?
true
T or F
in the larynx, laryngospasm occurs if anything but air attempts to enter the airway.
gas exchange in the cells
which of the following is considered internal respiration?
adenoid tonsils, palatine tonsils, lingual tonsils
which of the following are lymphoid tissues present in the pharynx?
3
from the gross anatomy of the lungs, as separated by fissures, how many lobes are noted in the right lung?
diaphram
which of the following is the primary muscle active in quiet breathing?
1 to 3 cm below the cricoid cartilage
where in the airway is the tracheostomy performed?
to allow the two pleural membranes to glide over each other during inspiration
waht is the primary function of the pleural fluid?
true
L/S rations and PG levels indicate lung maturity in neonates.
conducting airways
airways that do not particitpate in gas exchange
respiratory bronchioles
mark the beginning of the gas exchange zone
pores of kohn
connect adjacent alveoli
clara cells
source of secretions in terminal bronchioles
parenchyma
elastic fibers forming lung tissue
acinus
functional respiratory unit
alveoli
gas-exchanging sac
diaphragm
accessory muscles are all of the following except:
hyoid
identify the non articulating, sesmoid bone that is located superior to the vocal cords in the larynx.
flattening of the diaphram
if the lungs fail to empty normally during exhalation, because of either weakened elastic recoil forces or high resistance to airflow, the retained volume causes which change in the chest radiograph?
sternal notch
what is the name of the most superior part of the sternum?
true
T or F
the lungs lymphatics are two sets of vessles: the deep and the superficial networks that drain pleural fluid and direct it to lymph nodes in the hilum.
adenoids
pharyngeal tonsils are also called:
false
T or F
lamellar bodies release into the alveoli by type II pneumocytes are the source of alveolar surfactant phospholipid.
parietal pleural
attached to inner chest wall surface
thoracentesis
tuve in pleural cavity
lingula
left lung portion overlapping heart
pulmonary liagment
connects visceral pleura with diaphram
pleural space
between visceral and parietal membranes
pleural effusion
results of inflamed pleural space
costophrenic angle
diaphram meets chest wall
pneumothorax
air in pleural space
true
T or F
chronic sinus infections sometimes lead to lower respiratory tract infections
external intercostals, diaphram, parasternal muscles
which of the following are considered the primary respiratory muscles of inspiration (non labored)?
divert food around the flottic opening during swallowing
what is the promary function of the epiglottis?
alveolar macrophages
which of the following plays a major role in removing bacteria and otehr foreign material deposited within the acini?
parietal pleura
what is the name of the thin membrane covering the chest wall of the thorax?
reduces alveolar surface tension
plmonary surfactant
none
which of the following are the primary muscles that contract in a normal exhalation (non labored)?
carina
all of the following are parts of the sternum except the?
True
T or F
cigarette smoking makes the macrophages release powerful enzymes (proteases) that also destroy the elastic lung tissue.
middle lobe
which of the following is not a structural feature of the left lung?
false
T or F
the normal alveolar-to-arterial oxygen pressure difference is due to anatomical dead space.
true
T or F
the carina is the point of division for the mainstem bronchi. the external landmark for this division point is the fifth thoracic vertebra.
abdominal muscles
which of the following are consisdered accessory muscles of exhalations?
the lung has a tendency to recoil inward and pull away from the chest wall, the thorax has a tendency to recoil outward, away from the lung.
which of the following mechanisms is responsible for the creation of the subatmospheric pressure between the lung and chest wall?
false
T or F
the skeletal muscles of the chest wall and the diaphragm are innervated by the autonomic nervous system, while the lung airways are innervated by he somatic system.
phrenic
the diaphragm is innervated by which of the following nerves?
false
T or F
pulmonary capillary circulation is controlled by the autonomic nervous system.
-the diaphragm contracts, causing a deep inspiration
-a slight inspiratory pause occurs
-the muscles in the larynx close the glottis, sealing the upper airway.
-the abdominal expiratory muscles contract forcefully.
-the glottis suddenly opens, explosively compressed gas
which of the following is the right sequence that generate a cough?
true
T or F
cartilage initially encircles the dividing bronchi but becomes more irrrgular and discontinuous until it is completely replaced by smooth muscle in the bronchioles.
phrenic nerve
which of the following nerves supple motor stimulation directly to the diaphram?
12
how many of the ribs articulate with thoracic vertebrea?
2
how many floating ribs are there in the normal adult?
false
T or F
upper airway resistance is less than lower airway resistance.
deeper into the airways
breating cold air through the mouth will move the ISB;
true
T or F
parasympathetic stimulation raises the viscosity of airway secreation while sympathetic stimulation reduces the viscosity.
16 times more pressure
according to poiseuille's law, if an airways radius decreases to one half of it's original size, waht pressure will be required to maintain th original flow through the airway?
true
T or F
tachypnea is an increase in the respiratory rate
lymphatic drainage, action of the diaphram
waht maintains the negativity of intrapleural pressure?
epiglottis
which of the following structures, when inflamed in infants, is a life threatening condition?
anatomical dead space
waht is the volume of gas found in the " conducting airways' called?
pressure gradients
what causes air to move in or out of the lungs while keeping the lungs in an inflated state?
16
how many generations of bronchi are considered conducting airways (anatomical deadspace)?
pleural effusion
a blunted costophrenic angle is a sign of?
lower surface tension
which of the following is the function of the surfactant?
bronchoconstriction, reflex closure of the glottis, reflex slowing of the heart (bradycardia)
stimulation of the irritant receptors in the lung can result in which of the following?
true
T or F
the true vocal folds form a triangular opening leading into the trachea.
shunt
which of the following pathologic process is defined as perfusion in excess of ventilation, ie; atelectasis?
epiglottis
which of the following prevents the aspiration of foods and luquids?
glottis
what is the narrowest portion of the airway in teh adult larynx?
severe and life threatening
when an infant with stridor is drooling, epiglottis is considered?
true vocal cords
which of the following structures is responsible for phonation?
vallecula
which of the following structures is an important landmark during the insertion of a tuve into the trachea?
laryngeal and pharyngeal
which of the following two reflexes are responsible for preventing aspiration of foreign material into the lungs?
the left lung has eight segments, the right has ten
which of the following statements about the segmental anatomy of the lungs is true?
it reduces surface tension
what is the primary role of the surfactant in the lung alveoli?
crocoid cartilage
the only complete ring of cartilage encircling the airway in the laynx or trachea is the?
inspiration
in infants the airway diameter is about half that of an adult. any swelling in the upper airways in an adult may cause a sore thorat and hoarsness, in and infant the same swelling can close off the airway. turbulent air and vibration of the narrowed glottis is called stridor and heard during?
the ETT be pulled out slighly
after the guy from the other RT school intubated a patient, he asked you to assess the patient. You stand at the foot of the bed and notice uneven chest excursion, and suggest?
3
how many single cartilages are there in the larynx?
true
T or F
although the diaphragm is the principal muscle of inspiration, it is not essential for survival.
goblet cells
waht is the major source of respiratory tract secretions in the normal lung?
1. nares
2. nasal vestibule
3. concha
4. nasopharynx
5. oropharnx
6. hypopharynx
7. larynx
8. trachea
9. carina
10. mainstem (primary) bronchi
11. lobar bronchi
12. segmental bronchi
13. subsegemental bronchi
14. bronchiles
list the following pulmonary structures in order following air as it enters the respiratory system.
5 microns
the nose is an efficient filter. most particles larger than_____diameter do not gain entry to the lower airways.
the right bronchus is more in the line with the trachea
why do aspirated solid objects and fluids have a tendency to follow the straighter course of the right mainstem bronchus?
pores of kohn, canals of lambert
which of the following are collateral air passages that make it possible for the acinus and alveoli to receive ventilation from neighboring airways and alveoli?
they collapse at expiration
elastic fibers of lung parenchyma provide a tethering to the adjacent bronchiles during expiration. waht would happen to the bronchiles if the elastic fibres were destroyed by disease?
true
T or F
LaPlace's law states that the smaller the radius of a sphere the greater the pressure needed to keep it open.
true
T or F
the left bronchus is smaller in diameter than the right but twice as long.
they limit the bronchoconstriction
i-NANC neurotransmitters are co-released with the parasympathetic autonomic pastganglionic fibres. what do they do to cholingergic bronchocontriction?
downward movement of the diaphragm
which of the following mechanisms is by far the most significant cause of thoracic cavity enlargement during inspiration?
less viscous than the gel layer
the sol layer of the mucocillary escalator is?
asthmatics
nitric oxide (NO) a bronchidilator is released during inflammation. you would expect to find a higher concentrations of exhales NO in?
diaphragm
the major muscle(s) if ventialtion is (are) called the?
alveoli, acini and respiratory bronchiles only
the gas exchange zone (acinus or pulmonary lobule) consists of which of the following structures?
false
T or F
widespread sympathetic innervation of the lung airways accounts for the adrenergic bronchodilation in adults.
xiphoid process
during cardiopulmonary resuscitation involving cardiac compressions, care must be taken not to compress which of the following parts of the sternum because it's fracture may damage underlying organs?
gas exchanges
of the following which is NOT a function of the nose?
isothermic saturation boundry
inspired air becomes 100% saturated with water vapor and is warmed to body temperature at the point known as the?
pleural effusion
what is the term that describes the presence of fluid in the pleural space caused by inflammation?
air-conditioning
which function of the nose is lost if a plastic endotracheal tube is inserted through the mose or mouth and into the trachea?
interalveolar( pores of kohn) and bronchiole-alveolar (carnals of lambert)
what intercommunicating channels permit collateral ventilation between adjacent alveoli and primary lobules?
-they originate from spinal nerves C3 to C5
-they enter the chest in front of the scalenus muscle
-they are sandwiched between subclavian arteries and veins
-nerve injury is associated with paralysis of the diaphragm
which of the following statements are true of the phrenic nerves?
vocal cords
of the following, the structure essential in generating high pressure during a cough if the?
diaphragm contracts and flattens
which of the following occurs during inspiration?
100mL
in a healthy person approximatley __________of mucus is secreted per day.
true
T or F
cigarette smoking causes all types of mucous cells to proliferate and spread into small bronchioles where they are normally absent.
broncial arteries
airway walls in the lung received blood from the?
the point of dividion is called the carina, it is approximately 11 cm long, it ends at the level of the fifth thoracic vertebra
which of the following are characteristics of the trachea?
hyoid
which of the following is not considered a laryngeal cartilage?
increases (more negative)
during inspiration pleural pressure...
true
T or F
sharp inorganic crystal like asbestos fibres damage or kill macrophages causing the release of their toxic substances. these in turn attract fibroblasts that scar the affected lung.
pressurized air
due to excessive mucus buildup certain bronchioles have closed off completely and created atelectasis in certain lung parts. blood flow to that area could benefit from?
middle lobe
which of the following is NOT a structural feature of the left lung?
false
T or F
because of dichotomous braching bronchial tubes become narrower and narrower in diameter. this means the airflow has to squeeze through a smaller diameter and therfore speeds up as it approached the alveoli.
oxygen radicals
in the presence of high inspired oxygen concentrations, which substances are believed to produce alveolar injury?
90% phspholipid and 10% protien
what is the normal composition of the surfactant?
recoil
the ability of the lung to maintain it's shape is devined as?
autonomic nervous system
which of the following is the source of innervation for the lung?
11cm
the adult trachea is approximately how long (median)?
choanea
the nasal openings are called?
respiratory bronchioles
descending from the lager airways, alveoli first appear in the?
1. xiphoid process
2. manubrium
3. body
which of the following structures comprise the sternum?
a decrease in airway resistance
the respiratory muscles would have to work harder in all of the following conditions except?
abdominal muscles
which of the following are the only accessory muscles of expiration?
tongue
the most common threat to maintaining anopen upper airway involves inappropriate positioning of the?
-the heart rests on the left half of the diaphragm, pushing it downward
-the liver, directly below the right half of the diaphragm, props up this area
which of the following are explanations for the left hemidiaphragmatic surface to be slightly lower than the right?
tonsils
which of the following structures located in the nasal, oral and laryngeal pharynx are part of the lumphatic system and defend against infection in the upper airways?
bronchioles
which of the following structures of the airways does not have cartilage and depends on the retractile forces of the lung tissue to open?
soft tissue obstruction
in a deeply unconscious patient, which of the following is the most common threat to upper airway patency?
diffusion
gas exchange in the alveoli is accomplished by?
it could undermine your bronchodilator therapy
you are treating a patient who is an asthmatic with hypertension. to threat his heart condition, his cardiologist has him on inderal, a non-cardiospecific beta blocker. waht adverse effect could a beta blocker have on an asthmatic patient?
false
T or F
rapid shallow breathing will increase VA better than slow, deep breathing.
149 torr
the PO2 at the ISB would be about?
true
T or F
a narrowed or stenotic nitral valve would greatly increase the PCWP.
40%
calculate the Vd/Vt ratio for a patient with a PaCO2 of 50 and a PECO2 of 30.
Vdanat
bronchiodilators would marginally increase?
false
T or F
the thermistor in the PAC is a pressure measuring device.
caridogenic
pulmonary edema is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitial spaces and alveoli. if the edema is the result of increased filtration from the lung capillaries, that is called____pulmonary edema.
true
T or F
since only 0.25 secs are needed on average to load up the blood with oxygen in the pulmonary capilliaries, diseased persons often do not manifest hypoxia at rest.
false
T or F
bronchial vessels arise from the right ventricle.
false
T or F
pulmonary capillary circulation is not pulsatile.
true
T or F
at 10,000 feel the partial pressure of oxygen is 110 torr. At 20,000 feet the partial pressure of oxygen is 73 too.
false
T or F
PNA reduces ventilation in the lung by decreaed bulk flow.
110 mL
a patient weighs 50 Kg LBW. what is the anatomical dead space for her?
false
T or F
the composition of the VDanat gas is the same at the end of the inpiration or at the end of the expiration.
7 ATM
given that the weight of 33 feet of water is equal to 760 mm Hg, what would the equivalent atmospheric pressure be for a diver who descents to 200 feet.
non-cardiogenic
pulmonary edema is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitial spaces and alveoli. if the edema is the result of increased permeability in the lung capillaries, that is called_____pulmonary edema.
true
T or F
levels of BPG or 2,3 biphosphoglycerate (previously DPG) in erythrocytes, increase with elevated tissue glycolysis.
true
T or F
decompression sickness or "bends" is the result of dissolved nitrogen bubbling out of the blood of a dicer who surfaces too fast.
true
T or F
in an otherwise healthy lung, the supine postion would inprove oxygenation over the upright position/
1.36 cms H2O
one torr is equal too?
true
T or F
at the AC membrane, the diffusion gradient for oxygen is tem times more than that for CO2.
the entire lung is uniformly hypoxic
HPV (Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction) can result in high altitude pulmonary edema only if?
true
T or F
systemic capillary circulation is not pulsatile.
true
T or F
PVR is leff than one thenth of SVR.
cardiogenic pulomnary edema
the LCA(left caronary artey) is diseased in our patient, who is struggling to breath. you would suspect?
zone 3
which lung zone is associated with shunting?
decreased oncotic pressures cause pulmonary edema
your patient has known renal problems. she is short of breath, the lab results show marked proteinuria. you suspect?
in the arteries only
alveolar PACO2 is equal blood PCO2?
decrease it
what will deep breathing do to the Vd/Vt ratio?
false
T or F
the erythrocytes of a person exercising will traverse the pulmonary capillaries in about 0.25 secs. the overall result will be that less oxygen is avaiable to tissues than at rest.
true
T or F
doubling the breathing frequency doubles the VDanat.
false
T or F
asthma which partially obstructs airways reduces ventilation in the lungs by reduced diffusion.
falst
T or F
snorkeling decreses dead space.
the lung only
hypoxia will cause a constrictive response in?
false
T or F
hypercapnia is due to hyperventilation
true
T or F
the pulmonary semilunar valve and the pulmonary orifices in the left atrium mark the beginning and the end of the pulmonary circulation.
true
T or F
nitrogen narcosis, or "rapture of the deep", is an alcohol like intoxication suffered by divers who overstay their time under water.
alveolar dead sace
which of the following describes an alveolus that is ventialted but not perfused with pulmonary blood?
true
T or F
the V/Q ratio increases from the lung base to the lung apex.
increase PVR
a drug that inhibits nitric oxide production will?
true
T or F
the evaluate the lungs diffusion capacity alone, carbon monoxied (CO), is used in PFT studies.
true
T or F
essentially each heartbeat replaces pulmonary capillary blood.
last gas in is wasted
which of the inspired/expired gasses are considered wasted?
true
T or F
in a healthy person, the amount of blood in the pulmonary capillaries at any given moment is the same as the right ventricular stroke volume of 70 ml.
true
T or F
the PAC, quadruple lumen and Swan-Ganz refer to the same pulmonary artery catheter.
reduces anatomical dead space
what will the placement of a tracheostomy tube below the cricoid catilage do to the patients VDanat?
false
T or F
elevation to 30,000 feet will cause the oxygen content of the atmosphere to drop below 20.9%.
0.5 microns
what is the thickness of the alveolar respiratory membrane across which gases diffuse?
false
T or F
the pulmonary circulation is a high pressure system
true
T or F
normal RBC levels are 5 million per ml. in polycythemia vera this figure can be elevated from 7 to 15 million per ml.
false
T or F
right and left ventricle stroke volume must be the same every single stroke.
true
T or F
two sources of anatomical shunt are the bronchial and the thebesian vessels.
true
T or F
parasympathetic nerves and pulmonary arteries follow the bronchi into the lungs.
true
T or F
a patient with pulmonary embolus (PE) will likely increase the alveolar dead space.
0.8
what is the overall V/Q ratio in a normal resting lung?
total IV fluids given
an MVA patient, who last a lot of blood, is now in your care. the patient is becoming SOB (short of breath). what would you question the RN about him?
true
T or F
it takes an erythrocyte about 0.75 secs to traverse the pulmonary capillaries in a resting person.
0.75
when the alveolar ventialtion is 6 L/min and the pulmonary blood flow is 8 L/min, the V/Q ratio is approximately?
-VIP
-NO
which of the following neurotransmitters of the NANC system are bronchodilators?
true
T or F
normally it is the blood flow rate and not the AC membrane that limits the oxygen diffusion rate.
false
T or F
PECO2 and PETCO2 are identical measures.
zone 1
positive pressure ventialtion would likely increase the influence of which lung zone?
false
T or F
the pulmonary vessles are highly compliant accounting for the pulsatile flow in pulmonary capillaries.
zone 1
a severe drop in blood pressure can increase the effect of which lung zone?
47 torr
at 37 degrees celsius the partial pressure of water vapor is?
true
T or F
one of the concerns of pressurized high altitude equpment is that it could explode. passenger planes keep the cabin pressure equal to an elevation of 5000 ft. because at that height on ecan be atop a mountain, breathing atmospheric oxygen with no noticable effect in the PO2
false
T or F
for all praticable purposes the PCWP is equal to the right ventribles preload.
6.5 L/min
calculate the VE. Vt=650 ml. f=10
false
T or F
the rate if gas diffusion in the lung is directly proportinal to it's molecular weight
true
T or F
even under resting conditions, blood can absorb carbon monoxide faster than that gas is able to diffuse across the AC membrane.
true
T or F
an ETT would decrease dead space.
false
T or F
capnometers are devices that can graph the PCO2 waveform.
false
T or F
a patient who takes a shallow breath of 150 ml is very likely to change the alveolar gas composition.
truea
T or F
the respiratory exchange ratio (R) is 0.8.
true
T or F
pH cand HCO3- have a directly proportional relationship. CO2 and pH have an indirectly proportional relationship.
true
T or F
increased levels of CO2 in the arterial blood increase the hydrogen (H+) ion conten in the cerebral spinal fluid that bathes the central chemoreceptors.
false
T or F
hypthermia causes the HbO2 curve to shift to the right.
40 torr
the PaCO2 is measured at 20 torr for an alveolar munute ventialtion of 10L/min. if the alveolar minute ventialtion is halved to 5 L/min, what would the PaCO2 be?
false
T or F
a right shirft of the HbO2 cure means an increaseing affinity for oxygen as blood enters systemic capillaries.
cheyne stokes
which of the following is a cyclic increase in respiratory rate and colume followed by apnea then starting all over again?
true
T or F
tachypnea is an increase in the respiratory rate.
VC
which lung capacity is made up of the IRV, VT and ERV?
IC
Vt+ IRV
FRC
ERV+RV
TLC
IRV+Vt+ERV+RV
-ERV
-RV
indicate the volumes that make up the FRC;
to make up the alveolar wall
what is the function of the type 1 pneumocytes?
false
T or F
a buffer solution promotes changes in pH when an acid or base is added to it.
false
T or F
oxygen bings competitively with hemoglobin.
true
T or F
hemoglobin is the most important and most abundant non-bicarbonate buffer solution in the blood.
false
T or F
carbon dioxide binds with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin.
erythocytes
the marjority of CO2 hydrates to form H2CO3 in the?
ventilation in excessof perfusion
which of the following defines deadspace ventilation?
1.1 l
if during a pulmonary function test a Vt of 500 ml and an IRV of 600 ml were measured what would the IC be?
increase
a patient with known cardiac disease has decreased systemic blood flow. you would expect tissue extractions of oxygen to?
true
T or F
hemoglobin has two alpha and two beta polypeptides as part of it's globin molecules.
false
T or F
lungs eliminate CO2 and physically remove H+ ions from the body.
12
how many pairs of ribs make up the normal chest cage?
7.2 L
what is the minute alveolar ventilation for the following patient data:IBW=150 lbs, Vt=.750L, f=12
change in volume/pressure
which of the following is the calculation for compliance?
true
T or F
by far the majority of oxygen in the blood is in the erythocyte hemoglobin, with a minimal component that's dissolved.
false
T or F
the lungs excrete fixed acids and the kidneys excrete volatile acids.
false
T or F
according to the "40,50,60..." rule at a PvO2 of 40 the SvO2 should be 40.
false
T or F
COPD patients will have low levels of 2,3 DPG in the erythrocytes.
PaCo2
which of the following blood gas measurements determines how well a patients lungs are being ventilated?
clarke
the blood gas electrode that measures PaCO2 is the?
true
T or F
changes in blood pH cause countering changes in the levels of 2,3-DPG production.
ttrue
T or F
1.34 ml for oxygen per gram of Hemoglobin is the accepted value for hemglobin;s oxygen carrying capacity.
true
T or F
a primary metabolic disturbance involves gain or loss of fixed acids and bicarbonates/
increased H+ ion levels
which of the following directly stimulates the central chemoreceptors?
true
T or F
weak acids and bases ionize to a small extent in an aqueous solution.
decreaseing it
carbon monoxide poisoning changes hemoglobins O2 affinity by?
false
PCO2's effect on the HbO2 curve is to shift it to the left.
tonsils
which of the following structures located in the nasal, oral and laryngeal pharynx are part of the lymphatic system and defends against infection in the upper airways?
true
T or F
at rest tissues extract 250ml of O2 and produce 200ml of CO2.
true
T or F
under normal conditions, dissolved PaO2 doubles as PAO2 doubles.
90%
heart muscles O2 extractions is about?
into the right lower lobe
if a patient aspirates while sitting up where is the aspirate most likely to go?
acute or uncompensated respiratory alkalosis
a patient on 2 L/min O2 delivered through a nasal cannula, has the following ABG results: pH 7.51, PaCO2 27 torr, PaO2 62 torr, HCO3- 23mEg/L. these results indicate which of the following?
the amount of air that can be inspired from the resting exhaltion
which of the following is the definition of inspiratory capacity (IC)?
horizontal and vertical displacement of the chest and pleural that causes a drop in intrapleural pressure
how do the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles affect the regional distribution of ventilation?
false
T or F
an acid is a proton acceptor and a base is a proton donor.
false
chronic hypoxia as seen in a long term smokers, can result in low SaO2 percent. is this likely due to anemia?
none
which of the following are the primary muscles that contract in a normal exhalation (non labored)?
false
T or F
a hight P50 means hemoglobins affinity for oxygen is increased.
true
T or F
the blood oxygen delivery rate is 4 times the body tissue needs.
true
T or F
for every 20 torr increase in PaCo2, the pH decreases by 0.10. for every 10 torr decrease in PaCo2, the pH increase by 0.10.
true
T or F
oxygen binding can alter the hemoblogin shape and it's light absorbtion characteristics, which is the basis of oximetry?
9.75 L
calculate the minute ventilation (VE) for the following patient data. IBW =125lbs, Respiratory rate 15, tidal volume (Vt) .650ml
true
T or F
blood gas analyzers measure pH and PCO2 but compute [HCO3-].
hypercapnia
which of the following conditions shifts the HbO2 dissassociation curve to the right?
true
T or F
acidotic blood carries leff O2 than alkalotic blood.
True
T or F
carbon dioxide has a high solubility in plasma.
true
T or F
a primary respiratory disturbance is alveolar related ventialtion.
false
T or F
shunting is improved by administering 100% oxygen.
true
T or F
oxygen binds reversibly to each of the 4 polypeptide-heme combination within hemoglobin.
PvO2
which of the following blood gas measurements determines the level of tissue oxygenation?
true
T or F
carbon dioxide reacts with plasma proteins to form carbamino compounds.
to lubricate and avoid friction as the lung moves
what is the function of the pleural membrane?
severinghaus
the flood gas electrode that measure PaCO2 is the ?
increases them
what effect does inadequate alveolar minute ventialtion have on plasma PCO2 and plasma H2Co3?
true
T or F
metabolic acidosis can be countered by increased alveolar ventilation.
40 torr
fetal hemoglobin has a maximum PaO2 of?
true
T or F
metabolic compensation takes several hours or days to occur, whereas respiratory compensation may happen in minutes.
deep purple
when hemoglobin releases oxygen it becomes desaturated and changes color to?
slate-gray
cynaotic infanst with methomoglobinemia have a skin color of?
in the left upper lobes
where is the lingula located?
true
T or F
increased carbonic acid due to hypoventilation is buffered by the non-bicarbonate buffer system.
pneumotaxic center
which of the following is the respiratory center responsible for limiting tidal volume in a normally breathing patient?
increase
if there was a disease that prevented production of carbonic anhydrase in the RBC, what would happen to plasma CO2?
false
carbon monoxide binds co-operatively with hemoglobin.
false
large PO2 changes cause large changes in hemoglobin oxygen content.
false
oxygen is only carried by hemoglobin in blood.
16
how many generations of bronchi are considered conducting airways (anatomical deadspace)?
true
T or F
H2CO3 is called a volatile acid beacuase it is in equilibrium with CO2 gas.
hemoglobin release of oxygen facilitates CO2 uptake
the Haldane effect states that?
low venous O2 saturation and low arterial O2 saturation
peripheral versus central cynaosis is caused respectively by?
true
T or F
a fixed acid is buffered by the bicarbonate buffer system.
false
T or F
in hemoglobin, oxygen combnes with the alpha and beta globins, whereas CO2 combines with the heme group.
the bifurcation of the primary bronchi from the trachea
what is the carina?
-pulmonary capillary squamous epithelium
-alvolar squamous epithelium
-surfactant
-RBC membrane
-lung interstitual space
which of the following are barriers to oxygenation from the alveoli into the blood under normal circumstances ( no pathologic process)?
5g/dL
cyanosis is not observed in the skin, nail beds or lips until unsaturated hemoglobin is at least to a level of ?
shunt
which of the following pathologic processes is defined as perfusion in excess of ventilation, ie;atelectasis?
abdominal muscles
which of the following are considered accessory muscles of exhalation?
true
T or F
diagonistically the PaO2 is a better measure because it reflects oxygenation problems earlier than the SaO2.
false
T or F
oxygen has a high solubility in plasma.
true
T or F
increase in PO2 above 60 torr does not add much oxygen to the blood.
Sanz
the blood gas electrode that measures pH is the ?
true
T or F
the P50 of the oxyhemoglobin curve is the PO2 at which 50% of the hemoglobin is saturated with oxygen.
carotid and aortic chemoreceptors
which of the following receptors are stimulated by low blood oxygen levels?
-PaO2>60mmHg
-hypoventilation
-CO2 narcosis
-lethargy
-obtundance
-coma
-DEATH!
put the following sequence of events that may occur when a COPD patient who retains CO2 gets too much oxygen: