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gas exchange and acid base balance

which of the following represents the lungs overall contribution to homeostasis?


T or F
in the larynx, laryngospasm occurs if anything but air attempts to enter the airway.

gas exchange in the cells

which of the following is considered internal respiration?

adenoid tonsils, palatine tonsils, lingual tonsils

which of the following are lymphoid tissues present in the pharynx?


from the gross anatomy of the lungs, as separated by fissures, how many lobes are noted in the right lung?


which of the following is the primary muscle active in quiet breathing?

1 to 3 cm below the cricoid cartilage

where in the airway is the tracheostomy performed?

to allow the two pleural membranes to glide over each other during inspiration

waht is the primary function of the pleural fluid?


L/S rations and PG levels indicate lung maturity in neonates.

conducting airways

airways that do not particitpate in gas exchange

respiratory bronchioles

mark the beginning of the gas exchange zone

pores of kohn

connect adjacent alveoli

clara cells

source of secretions in terminal bronchioles


elastic fibers forming lung tissue


functional respiratory unit


gas-exchanging sac


accessory muscles are all of the following except:


identify the non articulating, sesmoid bone that is located superior to the vocal cords in the larynx.

flattening of the diaphram

if the lungs fail to empty normally during exhalation, because of either weakened elastic recoil forces or high resistance to airflow, the retained volume causes which change in the chest radiograph?

sternal notch

what is the name of the most superior part of the sternum?


T or F
the lungs lymphatics are two sets of vessles: the deep and the superficial networks that drain pleural fluid and direct it to lymph nodes in the hilum.


pharyngeal tonsils are also called:


T or F
lamellar bodies release into the alveoli by type II pneumocytes are the source of alveolar surfactant phospholipid.

parietal pleural

attached to inner chest wall surface


tuve in pleural cavity


left lung portion overlapping heart

pulmonary liagment

connects visceral pleura with diaphram

pleural space

between visceral and parietal membranes

pleural effusion

results of inflamed pleural space

costophrenic angle

diaphram meets chest wall


air in pleural space


T or F
chronic sinus infections sometimes lead to lower respiratory tract infections

external intercostals, diaphram, parasternal muscles

which of the following are considered the primary respiratory muscles of inspiration (non labored)?

divert food around the flottic opening during swallowing

what is the promary function of the epiglottis?

alveolar macrophages

which of the following plays a major role in removing bacteria and otehr foreign material deposited within the acini?

parietal pleura

what is the name of the thin membrane covering the chest wall of the thorax?

reduces alveolar surface tension

plmonary surfactant


which of the following are the primary muscles that contract in a normal exhalation (non labored)?


all of the following are parts of the sternum except the?


T or F
cigarette smoking makes the macrophages release powerful enzymes (proteases) that also destroy the elastic lung tissue.

middle lobe

which of the following is not a structural feature of the left lung?


T or F
the normal alveolar-to-arterial oxygen pressure difference is due to anatomical dead space.


T or F
the carina is the point of division for the mainstem bronchi. the external landmark for this division point is the fifth thoracic vertebra.

abdominal muscles

which of the following are consisdered accessory muscles of exhalations?

the lung has a tendency to recoil inward and pull away from the chest wall, the thorax has a tendency to recoil outward, away from the lung.

which of the following mechanisms is responsible for the creation of the subatmospheric pressure between the lung and chest wall?


T or F
the skeletal muscles of the chest wall and the diaphragm are innervated by the autonomic nervous system, while the lung airways are innervated by he somatic system.


the diaphragm is innervated by which of the following nerves?


T or F
pulmonary capillary circulation is controlled by the autonomic nervous system.

-the diaphragm contracts, causing a deep inspiration
-a slight inspiratory pause occurs
-the muscles in the larynx close the glottis, sealing the upper airway.
-the abdominal expiratory muscles contract forcefully.
-the glottis suddenly opens, explosively compressed gas

which of the following is the right sequence that generate a cough?


T or F
cartilage initially encircles the dividing bronchi but becomes more irrrgular and discontinuous until it is completely replaced by smooth muscle in the bronchioles.

phrenic nerve

which of the following nerves supple motor stimulation directly to the diaphram?


how many of the ribs articulate with thoracic vertebrea?


how many floating ribs are there in the normal adult?


T or F
upper airway resistance is less than lower airway resistance.

deeper into the airways

breating cold air through the mouth will move the ISB;


T or F
parasympathetic stimulation raises the viscosity of airway secreation while sympathetic stimulation reduces the viscosity.

16 times more pressure

according to poiseuille's law, if an airways radius decreases to one half of it's original size, waht pressure will be required to maintain th original flow through the airway?


T or F
tachypnea is an increase in the respiratory rate

lymphatic drainage, action of the diaphram

waht maintains the negativity of intrapleural pressure?


which of the following structures, when inflamed in infants, is a life threatening condition?

anatomical dead space

waht is the volume of gas found in the " conducting airways' called?

pressure gradients

what causes air to move in or out of the lungs while keeping the lungs in an inflated state?


how many generations of bronchi are considered conducting airways (anatomical deadspace)?

pleural effusion

a blunted costophrenic angle is a sign of?

lower surface tension

which of the following is the function of the surfactant?

bronchoconstriction, reflex closure of the glottis, reflex slowing of the heart (bradycardia)

stimulation of the irritant receptors in the lung can result in which of the following?


T or F
the true vocal folds form a triangular opening leading into the trachea.


which of the following pathologic process is defined as perfusion in excess of ventilation, ie; atelectasis?


which of the following prevents the aspiration of foods and luquids?


what is the narrowest portion of the airway in teh adult larynx?

severe and life threatening

when an infant with stridor is drooling, epiglottis is considered?

true vocal cords

which of the following structures is responsible for phonation?


which of the following structures is an important landmark during the insertion of a tuve into the trachea?

laryngeal and pharyngeal

which of the following two reflexes are responsible for preventing aspiration of foreign material into the lungs?

the left lung has eight segments, the right has ten

which of the following statements about the segmental anatomy of the lungs is true?

it reduces surface tension

what is the primary role of the surfactant in the lung alveoli?

crocoid cartilage

the only complete ring of cartilage encircling the airway in the laynx or trachea is the?


in infants the airway diameter is about half that of an adult. any swelling in the upper airways in an adult may cause a sore thorat and hoarsness, in and infant the same swelling can close off the airway. turbulent air and vibration of the narrowed glottis is called stridor and heard during?

the ETT be pulled out slighly

after the guy from the other RT school intubated a patient, he asked you to assess the patient. You stand at the foot of the bed and notice uneven chest excursion, and suggest?


how many single cartilages are there in the larynx?


T or F
although the diaphragm is the principal muscle of inspiration, it is not essential for survival.

goblet cells

waht is the major source of respiratory tract secretions in the normal lung?

1. nares
2. nasal vestibule
3. concha
4. nasopharynx
5. oropharnx
6. hypopharynx
7. larynx
8. trachea
9. carina
10. mainstem (primary) bronchi
11. lobar bronchi
12. segmental bronchi
13. subsegemental bronchi
14. bronchiles

list the following pulmonary structures in order following air as it enters the respiratory system.

5 microns

the nose is an efficient filter. most particles larger than_____diameter do not gain entry to the lower airways.

the right bronchus is more in the line with the trachea

why do aspirated solid objects and fluids have a tendency to follow the straighter course of the right mainstem bronchus?

pores of kohn, canals of lambert

which of the following are collateral air passages that make it possible for the acinus and alveoli to receive ventilation from neighboring airways and alveoli?

they collapse at expiration

elastic fibers of lung parenchyma provide a tethering to the adjacent bronchiles during expiration. waht would happen to the bronchiles if the elastic fibres were destroyed by disease?


T or F
LaPlace's law states that the smaller the radius of a sphere the greater the pressure needed to keep it open.


T or F
the left bronchus is smaller in diameter than the right but twice as long.

they limit the bronchoconstriction

i-NANC neurotransmitters are co-released with the parasympathetic autonomic pastganglionic fibres. what do they do to cholingergic bronchocontriction?

downward movement of the diaphragm

which of the following mechanisms is by far the most significant cause of thoracic cavity enlargement during inspiration?

less viscous than the gel layer

the sol layer of the mucocillary escalator is?


nitric oxide (NO) a bronchidilator is released during inflammation. you would expect to find a higher concentrations of exhales NO in?


the major muscle(s) if ventialtion is (are) called the?

alveoli, acini and respiratory bronchiles only

the gas exchange zone (acinus or pulmonary lobule) consists of which of the following structures?


T or F
widespread sympathetic innervation of the lung airways accounts for the adrenergic bronchodilation in adults.

xiphoid process

during cardiopulmonary resuscitation involving cardiac compressions, care must be taken not to compress which of the following parts of the sternum because it's fracture may damage underlying organs?

gas exchanges

of the following which is NOT a function of the nose?

isothermic saturation boundry

inspired air becomes 100% saturated with water vapor and is warmed to body temperature at the point known as the?

pleural effusion

what is the term that describes the presence of fluid in the pleural space caused by inflammation?


which function of the nose is lost if a plastic endotracheal tube is inserted through the mose or mouth and into the trachea?

interalveolar( pores of kohn) and bronchiole-alveolar (carnals of lambert)

what intercommunicating channels permit collateral ventilation between adjacent alveoli and primary lobules?

-they originate from spinal nerves C3 to C5
-they enter the chest in front of the scalenus muscle
-they are sandwiched between subclavian arteries and veins
-nerve injury is associated with paralysis of the diaphragm

which of the following statements are true of the phrenic nerves?

vocal cords

of the following, the structure essential in generating high pressure during a cough if the?

diaphragm contracts and flattens

which of the following occurs during inspiration?


in a healthy person approximatley __________of mucus is secreted per day.


T or F
cigarette smoking causes all types of mucous cells to proliferate and spread into small bronchioles where they are normally absent.

broncial arteries

airway walls in the lung received blood from the?

the point of dividion is called the carina, it is approximately 11 cm long, it ends at the level of the fifth thoracic vertebra

which of the following are characteristics of the trachea?


which of the following is not considered a laryngeal cartilage?

increases (more negative)

during inspiration pleural pressure...


T or F
sharp inorganic crystal like asbestos fibres damage or kill macrophages causing the release of their toxic substances. these in turn attract fibroblasts that scar the affected lung.

pressurized air

due to excessive mucus buildup certain bronchioles have closed off completely and created atelectasis in certain lung parts. blood flow to that area could benefit from?

middle lobe

which of the following is NOT a structural feature of the left lung?


T or F
because of dichotomous braching bronchial tubes become narrower and narrower in diameter. this means the airflow has to squeeze through a smaller diameter and therfore speeds up as it approached the alveoli.

oxygen radicals

in the presence of high inspired oxygen concentrations, which substances are believed to produce alveolar injury?

90% phspholipid and 10% protien

what is the normal composition of the surfactant?


the ability of the lung to maintain it's shape is devined as?

autonomic nervous system

which of the following is the source of innervation for the lung?


the adult trachea is approximately how long (median)?


the nasal openings are called?

respiratory bronchioles

descending from the lager airways, alveoli first appear in the?

1. xiphoid process
2. manubrium
3. body

which of the following structures comprise the sternum?

a decrease in airway resistance

the respiratory muscles would have to work harder in all of the following conditions except?

abdominal muscles

which of the following are the only accessory muscles of expiration?


the most common threat to maintaining anopen upper airway involves inappropriate positioning of the?

-the heart rests on the left half of the diaphragm, pushing it downward
-the liver, directly below the right half of the diaphragm, props up this area

which of the following are explanations for the left hemidiaphragmatic surface to be slightly lower than the right?


which of the following structures located in the nasal, oral and laryngeal pharynx are part of the lumphatic system and defend against infection in the upper airways?


which of the following structures of the airways does not have cartilage and depends on the retractile forces of the lung tissue to open?

soft tissue obstruction

in a deeply unconscious patient, which of the following is the most common threat to upper airway patency?


gas exchange in the alveoli is accomplished by?

it could undermine your bronchodilator therapy

you are treating a patient who is an asthmatic with hypertension. to threat his heart condition, his cardiologist has him on inderal, a non-cardiospecific beta blocker. waht adverse effect could a beta blocker have on an asthmatic patient?


T or F
rapid shallow breathing will increase VA better than slow, deep breathing.

149 torr

the PO2 at the ISB would be about?


T or F
a narrowed or stenotic nitral valve would greatly increase the PCWP.


calculate the Vd/Vt ratio for a patient with a PaCO2 of 50 and a PECO2 of 30.


bronchiodilators would marginally increase?


T or F
the thermistor in the PAC is a pressure measuring device.


pulmonary edema is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitial spaces and alveoli. if the edema is the result of increased filtration from the lung capillaries, that is called____pulmonary edema.


T or F
since only 0.25 secs are needed on average to load up the blood with oxygen in the pulmonary capilliaries, diseased persons often do not manifest hypoxia at rest.


T or F
bronchial vessels arise from the right ventricle.


T or F
pulmonary capillary circulation is not pulsatile.


T or F
at 10,000 feel the partial pressure of oxygen is 110 torr. At 20,000 feet the partial pressure of oxygen is 73 too.


T or F
PNA reduces ventilation in the lung by decreaed bulk flow.

110 mL

a patient weighs 50 Kg LBW. what is the anatomical dead space for her?


T or F
the composition of the VDanat gas is the same at the end of the inpiration or at the end of the expiration.


given that the weight of 33 feet of water is equal to 760 mm Hg, what would the equivalent atmospheric pressure be for a diver who descents to 200 feet.


pulmonary edema is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitial spaces and alveoli. if the edema is the result of increased permeability in the lung capillaries, that is called_____pulmonary edema.


T or F
levels of BPG or 2,3 biphosphoglycerate (previously DPG) in erythrocytes, increase with elevated tissue glycolysis.

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