which of the following are considered the primary respiratory muscles of inspiration (non labored)?
divert food around the flottic opening during swallowing
what is the promary function of the epiglottis?
which of the following plays a major role in removing bacteria and otehr foreign material deposited within the acini?
what is the name of the thin membrane covering the chest wall of the thorax?
reduces alveolar surface tension
which of the following are the primary muscles that contract in a normal exhalation (non labored)?
all of the following are parts of the sternum except the?
T or F cigarette smoking makes the macrophages release powerful enzymes (proteases) that also destroy the elastic lung tissue.
which of the following is not a structural feature of the left lung?
T or F the normal alveolar-to-arterial oxygen pressure difference is due to anatomical dead space.
T or F the carina is the point of division for the mainstem bronchi. the external landmark for this division point is the fifth thoracic vertebra.
which of the following are consisdered accessory muscles of exhalations?
the lung has a tendency to recoil inward and pull away from the chest wall, the thorax has a tendency to recoil outward, away from the lung.
which of the following mechanisms is responsible for the creation of the subatmospheric pressure between the lung and chest wall?
T or F the skeletal muscles of the chest wall and the diaphragm are innervated by the autonomic nervous system, while the lung airways are innervated by he somatic system.
the diaphragm is innervated by which of the following nerves?
T or F pulmonary capillary circulation is controlled by the autonomic nervous system.
-the diaphragm contracts, causing a deep inspiration -a slight inspiratory pause occurs -the muscles in the larynx close the glottis, sealing the upper airway. -the abdominal expiratory muscles contract forcefully. -the glottis suddenly opens, explosively compressed gas
which of the following is the right sequence that generate a cough?
T or F cartilage initially encircles the dividing bronchi but becomes more irrrgular and discontinuous until it is completely replaced by smooth muscle in the bronchioles.
which of the following nerves supple motor stimulation directly to the diaphram?
how many of the ribs articulate with thoracic vertebrea?
how many floating ribs are there in the normal adult?
T or F upper airway resistance is less than lower airway resistance.
deeper into the airways
breating cold air through the mouth will move the ISB;
T or F parasympathetic stimulation raises the viscosity of airway secreation while sympathetic stimulation reduces the viscosity.
16 times more pressure
according to poiseuille's law, if an airways radius decreases to one half of it's original size, waht pressure will be required to maintain th original flow through the airway?
T or F tachypnea is an increase in the respiratory rate
lymphatic drainage, action of the diaphram
waht maintains the negativity of intrapleural pressure?
which of the following structures, when inflamed in infants, is a life threatening condition?
anatomical dead space
waht is the volume of gas found in the " conducting airways' called?
what causes air to move in or out of the lungs while keeping the lungs in an inflated state?
how many generations of bronchi are considered conducting airways (anatomical deadspace)?
a blunted costophrenic angle is a sign of?
lower surface tension
which of the following is the function of the surfactant?
bronchoconstriction, reflex closure of the glottis, reflex slowing of the heart (bradycardia)
stimulation of the irritant receptors in the lung can result in which of the following?
T or F the true vocal folds form a triangular opening leading into the trachea.
which of the following pathologic process is defined as perfusion in excess of ventilation, ie; atelectasis?
which of the following prevents the aspiration of foods and luquids?
what is the narrowest portion of the airway in teh adult larynx?
severe and life threatening
when an infant with stridor is drooling, epiglottis is considered?
true vocal cords
which of the following structures is responsible for phonation?
which of the following structures is an important landmark during the insertion of a tuve into the trachea?
laryngeal and pharyngeal
which of the following two reflexes are responsible for preventing aspiration of foreign material into the lungs?
the left lung has eight segments, the right has ten
which of the following statements about the segmental anatomy of the lungs is true?
it reduces surface tension
what is the primary role of the surfactant in the lung alveoli?
the only complete ring of cartilage encircling the airway in the laynx or trachea is the?
in infants the airway diameter is about half that of an adult. any swelling in the upper airways in an adult may cause a sore thorat and hoarsness, in and infant the same swelling can close off the airway. turbulent air and vibration of the narrowed glottis is called stridor and heard during?
the ETT be pulled out slighly
after the guy from the other RT school intubated a patient, he asked you to assess the patient. You stand at the foot of the bed and notice uneven chest excursion, and suggest?
how many single cartilages are there in the larynx?
T or F although the diaphragm is the principal muscle of inspiration, it is not essential for survival.
waht is the major source of respiratory tract secretions in the normal lung?
list the following pulmonary structures in order following air as it enters the respiratory system.
the nose is an efficient filter. most particles larger than_____diameter do not gain entry to the lower airways.
the right bronchus is more in the line with the trachea
why do aspirated solid objects and fluids have a tendency to follow the straighter course of the right mainstem bronchus?
pores of kohn, canals of lambert
which of the following are collateral air passages that make it possible for the acinus and alveoli to receive ventilation from neighboring airways and alveoli?
they collapse at expiration
elastic fibers of lung parenchyma provide a tethering to the adjacent bronchiles during expiration. waht would happen to the bronchiles if the elastic fibres were destroyed by disease?
T or F LaPlace's law states that the smaller the radius of a sphere the greater the pressure needed to keep it open.
T or F the left bronchus is smaller in diameter than the right but twice as long.
they limit the bronchoconstriction
i-NANC neurotransmitters are co-released with the parasympathetic autonomic pastganglionic fibres. what do they do to cholingergic bronchocontriction?
downward movement of the diaphragm
which of the following mechanisms is by far the most significant cause of thoracic cavity enlargement during inspiration?
less viscous than the gel layer
the sol layer of the mucocillary escalator is?
nitric oxide (NO) a bronchidilator is released during inflammation. you would expect to find a higher concentrations of exhales NO in?
the major muscle(s) if ventialtion is (are) called the?
alveoli, acini and respiratory bronchiles only
the gas exchange zone (acinus or pulmonary lobule) consists of which of the following structures?
T or F widespread sympathetic innervation of the lung airways accounts for the adrenergic bronchodilation in adults.
during cardiopulmonary resuscitation involving cardiac compressions, care must be taken not to compress which of the following parts of the sternum because it's fracture may damage underlying organs?
of the following which is NOT a function of the nose?
isothermic saturation boundry
inspired air becomes 100% saturated with water vapor and is warmed to body temperature at the point known as the?
what is the term that describes the presence of fluid in the pleural space caused by inflammation?
which function of the nose is lost if a plastic endotracheal tube is inserted through the mose or mouth and into the trachea?
interalveolar( pores of kohn) and bronchiole-alveolar (carnals of lambert)
what intercommunicating channels permit collateral ventilation between adjacent alveoli and primary lobules?
-they originate from spinal nerves C3 to C5 -they enter the chest in front of the scalenus muscle -they are sandwiched between subclavian arteries and veins -nerve injury is associated with paralysis of the diaphragm
which of the following statements are true of the phrenic nerves?
of the following, the structure essential in generating high pressure during a cough if the?
diaphragm contracts and flattens
which of the following occurs during inspiration?
in a healthy person approximatley __________of mucus is secreted per day.
T or F cigarette smoking causes all types of mucous cells to proliferate and spread into small bronchioles where they are normally absent.
airway walls in the lung received blood from the?
the point of dividion is called the carina, it is approximately 11 cm long, it ends at the level of the fifth thoracic vertebra
which of the following are characteristics of the trachea?
which of the following is not considered a laryngeal cartilage?
increases (more negative)
during inspiration pleural pressure...
T or F sharp inorganic crystal like asbestos fibres damage or kill macrophages causing the release of their toxic substances. these in turn attract fibroblasts that scar the affected lung.
due to excessive mucus buildup certain bronchioles have closed off completely and created atelectasis in certain lung parts. blood flow to that area could benefit from?
which of the following is NOT a structural feature of the left lung?
T or F because of dichotomous braching bronchial tubes become narrower and narrower in diameter. this means the airflow has to squeeze through a smaller diameter and therfore speeds up as it approached the alveoli.
in the presence of high inspired oxygen concentrations, which substances are believed to produce alveolar injury?
90% phspholipid and 10% protien
what is the normal composition of the surfactant?
the ability of the lung to maintain it's shape is devined as?
autonomic nervous system
which of the following is the source of innervation for the lung?
the adult trachea is approximately how long (median)?
the nasal openings are called?
descending from the lager airways, alveoli first appear in the?
1. xiphoid process 2. manubrium 3. body
which of the following structures comprise the sternum?
a decrease in airway resistance
the respiratory muscles would have to work harder in all of the following conditions except?
which of the following are the only accessory muscles of expiration?
the most common threat to maintaining anopen upper airway involves inappropriate positioning of the?
-the heart rests on the left half of the diaphragm, pushing it downward -the liver, directly below the right half of the diaphragm, props up this area
which of the following are explanations for the left hemidiaphragmatic surface to be slightly lower than the right?
which of the following structures located in the nasal, oral and laryngeal pharynx are part of the lumphatic system and defend against infection in the upper airways?
which of the following structures of the airways does not have cartilage and depends on the retractile forces of the lung tissue to open?
soft tissue obstruction
in a deeply unconscious patient, which of the following is the most common threat to upper airway patency?
gas exchange in the alveoli is accomplished by?
it could undermine your bronchodilator therapy
you are treating a patient who is an asthmatic with hypertension. to threat his heart condition, his cardiologist has him on inderal, a non-cardiospecific beta blocker. waht adverse effect could a beta blocker have on an asthmatic patient?
T or F rapid shallow breathing will increase VA better than slow, deep breathing.
the PO2 at the ISB would be about?
T or F a narrowed or stenotic nitral valve would greatly increase the PCWP.
calculate the Vd/Vt ratio for a patient with a PaCO2 of 50 and a PECO2 of 30.
bronchiodilators would marginally increase?
T or F the thermistor in the PAC is a pressure measuring device.
pulmonary edema is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitial spaces and alveoli. if the edema is the result of increased filtration from the lung capillaries, that is called____pulmonary edema.
T or F since only 0.25 secs are needed on average to load up the blood with oxygen in the pulmonary capilliaries, diseased persons often do not manifest hypoxia at rest.
T or F bronchial vessels arise from the right ventricle.
T or F pulmonary capillary circulation is not pulsatile.
T or F at 10,000 feel the partial pressure of oxygen is 110 torr. At 20,000 feet the partial pressure of oxygen is 73 too.
T or F PNA reduces ventilation in the lung by decreaed bulk flow.
a patient weighs 50 Kg LBW. what is the anatomical dead space for her?
T or F the composition of the VDanat gas is the same at the end of the inpiration or at the end of the expiration.
given that the weight of 33 feet of water is equal to 760 mm Hg, what would the equivalent atmospheric pressure be for a diver who descents to 200 feet.
pulmonary edema is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitial spaces and alveoli. if the edema is the result of increased permeability in the lung capillaries, that is called_____pulmonary edema.
T or F levels of BPG or 2,3 biphosphoglycerate (previously DPG) in erythrocytes, increase with elevated tissue glycolysis.
T or F decompression sickness or "bends" is the result of dissolved nitrogen bubbling out of the blood of a dicer who surfaces too fast.
T or F in an otherwise healthy lung, the supine postion would inprove oxygenation over the upright position/
1.36 cms H2O
one torr is equal too?
T or F at the AC membrane, the diffusion gradient for oxygen is tem times more than that for CO2.
the entire lung is uniformly hypoxic
HPV (Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction) can result in high altitude pulmonary edema only if?
T or F systemic capillary circulation is not pulsatile.
T or F PVR is leff than one thenth of SVR.
cardiogenic pulomnary edema
the LCA(left caronary artey) is diseased in our patient, who is struggling to breath. you would suspect?
which lung zone is associated with shunting?
decreased oncotic pressures cause pulmonary edema
your patient has known renal problems. she is short of breath, the lab results show marked proteinuria. you suspect?
in the arteries only
alveolar PACO2 is equal blood PCO2?
what will deep breathing do to the Vd/Vt ratio?
T or F the erythrocytes of a person exercising will traverse the pulmonary capillaries in about 0.25 secs. the overall result will be that less oxygen is avaiable to tissues than at rest.
T or F doubling the breathing frequency doubles the VDanat.
T or F asthma which partially obstructs airways reduces ventilation in the lungs by reduced diffusion.
T or F snorkeling decreses dead space.
the lung only
hypoxia will cause a constrictive response in?
T or F hypercapnia is due to hyperventilation
T or F the pulmonary semilunar valve and the pulmonary orifices in the left atrium mark the beginning and the end of the pulmonary circulation.
T or F nitrogen narcosis, or "rapture of the deep", is an alcohol like intoxication suffered by divers who overstay their time under water.
alveolar dead sace
which of the following describes an alveolus that is ventialted but not perfused with pulmonary blood?
T or F the V/Q ratio increases from the lung base to the lung apex.
a drug that inhibits nitric oxide production will?
T or F the evaluate the lungs diffusion capacity alone, carbon monoxied (CO), is used in PFT studies.
T or F essentially each heartbeat replaces pulmonary capillary blood.
last gas in is wasted
which of the inspired/expired gasses are considered wasted?
T or F in a healthy person, the amount of blood in the pulmonary capillaries at any given moment is the same as the right ventricular stroke volume of 70 ml.
T or F the PAC, quadruple lumen and Swan-Ganz refer to the same pulmonary artery catheter.
reduces anatomical dead space
what will the placement of a tracheostomy tube below the cricoid catilage do to the patients VDanat?
T or F elevation to 30,000 feet will cause the oxygen content of the atmosphere to drop below 20.9%.
what is the thickness of the alveolar respiratory membrane across which gases diffuse?
T or F the pulmonary circulation is a high pressure system
T or F normal RBC levels are 5 million per ml. in polycythemia vera this figure can be elevated from 7 to 15 million per ml.
T or F right and left ventricle stroke volume must be the same every single stroke.
T or F two sources of anatomical shunt are the bronchial and the thebesian vessels.
T or F parasympathetic nerves and pulmonary arteries follow the bronchi into the lungs.
T or F a patient with pulmonary embolus (PE) will likely increase the alveolar dead space.
what is the overall V/Q ratio in a normal resting lung?
total IV fluids given
an MVA patient, who last a lot of blood, is now in your care. the patient is becoming SOB (short of breath). what would you question the RN about him?
T or F it takes an erythrocyte about 0.75 secs to traverse the pulmonary capillaries in a resting person.
when the alveolar ventialtion is 6 L/min and the pulmonary blood flow is 8 L/min, the V/Q ratio is approximately?
which of the following neurotransmitters of the NANC system are bronchodilators?
T or F normally it is the blood flow rate and not the AC membrane that limits the oxygen diffusion rate.
T or F PECO2 and PETCO2 are identical measures.
positive pressure ventialtion would likely increase the influence of which lung zone?
T or F the pulmonary vessles are highly compliant accounting for the pulsatile flow in pulmonary capillaries.
a severe drop in blood pressure can increase the effect of which lung zone?
at 37 degrees celsius the partial pressure of water vapor is?
T or F one of the concerns of pressurized high altitude equpment is that it could explode. passenger planes keep the cabin pressure equal to an elevation of 5000 ft. because at that height on ecan be atop a mountain, breathing atmospheric oxygen with no noticable effect in the PO2
T or F for all praticable purposes the PCWP is equal to the right ventribles preload.
calculate the VE. Vt=650 ml. f=10
T or F the rate if gas diffusion in the lung is directly proportinal to it's molecular weight
T or F even under resting conditions, blood can absorb carbon monoxide faster than that gas is able to diffuse across the AC membrane.
T or F an ETT would decrease dead space.
T or F capnometers are devices that can graph the PCO2 waveform.
T or F a patient who takes a shallow breath of 150 ml is very likely to change the alveolar gas composition.
T or F the respiratory exchange ratio (R) is 0.8.
T or F pH cand HCO3- have a directly proportional relationship. CO2 and pH have an indirectly proportional relationship.
T or F increased levels of CO2 in the arterial blood increase the hydrogen (H+) ion conten in the cerebral spinal fluid that bathes the central chemoreceptors.
T or F hypthermia causes the HbO2 curve to shift to the right.
the PaCO2 is measured at 20 torr for an alveolar munute ventialtion of 10L/min. if the alveolar minute ventialtion is halved to 5 L/min, what would the PaCO2 be?
T or F a right shirft of the HbO2 cure means an increaseing affinity for oxygen as blood enters systemic capillaries.
which of the following is a cyclic increase in respiratory rate and colume followed by apnea then starting all over again?
T or F tachypnea is an increase in the respiratory rate.
which lung capacity is made up of the IRV, VT and ERV?
indicate the volumes that make up the FRC;
to make up the alveolar wall
what is the function of the type 1 pneumocytes?
T or F a buffer solution promotes changes in pH when an acid or base is added to it.
T or F oxygen bings competitively with hemoglobin.
T or F hemoglobin is the most important and most abundant non-bicarbonate buffer solution in the blood.
T or F carbon dioxide binds with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin.
the marjority of CO2 hydrates to form H2CO3 in the?
ventilation in excessof perfusion
which of the following defines deadspace ventilation?
if during a pulmonary function test a Vt of 500 ml and an IRV of 600 ml were measured what would the IC be?
a patient with known cardiac disease has decreased systemic blood flow. you would expect tissue extractions of oxygen to?
T or F hemoglobin has two alpha and two beta polypeptides as part of it's globin molecules.
T or F lungs eliminate CO2 and physically remove H+ ions from the body.
how many pairs of ribs make up the normal chest cage?
what is the minute alveolar ventilation for the following patient data:IBW=150 lbs, Vt=.750L, f=12
change in volume/pressure
which of the following is the calculation for compliance?
T or F by far the majority of oxygen in the blood is in the erythocyte hemoglobin, with a minimal component that's dissolved.
T or F the lungs excrete fixed acids and the kidneys excrete volatile acids.
T or F according to the "40,50,60..." rule at a PvO2 of 40 the SvO2 should be 40.
T or F COPD patients will have low levels of 2,3 DPG in the erythrocytes.
which of the following blood gas measurements determines how well a patients lungs are being ventilated?
the blood gas electrode that measures PaCO2 is the?
T or F changes in blood pH cause countering changes in the levels of 2,3-DPG production.
T or F 1.34 ml for oxygen per gram of Hemoglobin is the accepted value for hemglobin;s oxygen carrying capacity.
T or F a primary metabolic disturbance involves gain or loss of fixed acids and bicarbonates/
increased H+ ion levels
which of the following directly stimulates the central chemoreceptors?
T or F weak acids and bases ionize to a small extent in an aqueous solution.