61 terms

Chapter 12:Psychological Disorders

abnormal behavior
is deviant, maladaptive, or personally distressful over a relatively long period of time
medical model
describes psychological disorders as medical diseases with a biological origin
biological approach
psychological disorders to organic, internal causes... primarily focuses on the brain, genetic factors, and neurotransmitter functioning as the sources of abnormality
psychological approach
emphasizes the contributions of experiences, thoughts, emotions, and personality characteristics in explaining psychological disorders
sociocultural approach
emphasizes the social contexts in which a person lives, including gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, family relationships, and culture
biopsychosocial model
influenced by biological factors (such as genes), psychosocial factors (such as childhood experiences), and socioculutral factors (such as gender).
diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, introduced in 1994
Axis I
all diagnostic categories except personality disorders and mental retardation
Axis II
Personality disorders and mental retardation
Axis III
General medical conditions
Axis IV
Psychosocial and environmental problems
Axis V
current level of functioning
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
one of the most common psychological disorders of childhood, in which individuals show one or more of the following: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
criticism of DSM-IV
complex interaction of biological, psychological, and environmental factors in psychological disorders, reflects the medical model, focuses strictly on pathology and problems
anxiety disorders
involve fears that are uncontrollable, disproportionate to the actual danger the person might be in, and disruptive of ordinary life- motor tension, hyperactivity, and apprehensive expectations and thoughts
Types of anxiety disorders
Generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, phobic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder
generalized anxiety disorder
psychological disorder marked by persistent anxiety for least 6 months, and in which the individual is unable to specify the reasons for the anxiety
panic disorder
anxiety disorder in which the individual experiences recurrent, sudden onsets of intense terror, often without warning and with no specific cause
phobic disorder (phobia)
anxiety disorder characterized by an irrational, overwhelming, persistent fear of a particular object or situation
obsessive-compulsive disorder
anxiety-provoking thoughts that will not go away and/or urges to perform repetitive, ritualistic behaviors to prevent or produce some future situation
post-traumatic stress disorder
anxiety disorder that develops through exposure to a traumatic event, a severely oppressive situation, cruel abuse, or a natural or an unnatural disaster
PTSD symptoms
fashbacks (reliving events), avoiding emotional experiences and avoiding talking about emotions with others, reduced ability to feel emotions, excessivie arousal, diff arousal, diff with memory and concentration, feelings of apprehension, impulsive outbursts
mood disorders
psychological disorders in which there is a primary disturbance of mood: prolonged emotion that colors the individual's entire emotional state
depressive disorders
mood disorders in which the individual suffers from despression: an unrelenting lack of pleasure in life
major depressive disorder
involving a major depressive episode and depressed characteristics, such as lethargy and hopelessness, for at least two weeks
MDD symptoms
five must be present during a two-week period- depressed mood most of the day, reduced interest or pleasure... see page 424
Dysthymic disorder
mood disorder that is generally more chronic and has fewer symptoms than MDD
DD symptoms
poor appetite or overeating, sleep problems, low energy or fatigue, low self-esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, feelings of hopelessness
biological factors
genetic, lower levels of brain activity in a section of the prefrontal cortex that is involved in generating actions
learned helplessness
an individual's acquisition of feelings of powerlessness when he or she is exposed to aversive circumstances, such as prolonged stress, over which that individual has no control
sociocultural factors
individuals with a low socioeconomic status... women are twice as likely to develop depression
bipolar disorder
a mood disorder that is characterized by extreme mood swings that include one or more episodes of mania, an overexcited, unrealistically optimistic state
anorexia nervosa
eating disorder that involves the relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation, more common in girls than women,
main characteristics of A.N.
weight less than 85 percent of what is considered norman for age and height
bulimia nervosa
eating disorder in which an individual (typically a girl or a woman) consistently follows a binge-and-purge eating pattern
many personality characteristics and behaviors that are associated with anorexia and bulimia are influenced by genes
binge eating disorder
characterized by recurrent episodes of eating large amounts of food during which the person feels a lack of control over eating
dissociative disorders
psychological disorders that involve a sudden loss of memory or change in identity due to the dissociation (separation) of the individual's conscious awareness from previous memories and thoughts
the inability to recall important events
dissociative amnesia
characterized by extreme memory loss that is caused by extensive psychological stress
dissociative fugue
fugue means flight, dissociative disorder in which the individual not only develops amnesia buy also unexpectedly travels away from home and assumes a new identity
dissociative identity disorder
formerly called multiple personality disorder, a dissociative disorder in which the individual has two or more distinct personalities or selves, each with its own memories, behaviors, and relationships
a severe psychological disorder that is characterized by highly disordered thought processes, referred to as psychotic because they are so far removed from reality
sensory experiences that occur in the absence of real stimuli
false, unusual, and sometimes magical beliefs that are not part of an individual's culture
referential thinking
ascribing personal meaning to completely random events
state of immobility and unresponsiveness, lasting for long periods of time
flat affect
display of little or no emotion- a common negative symptom of schizophrenia
thought disorder
unusual, sometimes bizarre thought processes that are characterstic positive symptoms of schizophrenia
"positive" symptoms of schizophrenia
reflect something added above and beyond normal behavior- hallucinations, delusions, thought disorders, and disorders of movement
"negative" symptoms
reflect social withdrawl, behavioral deficits, and the loss or decrease of normal functions
genetic factors play a role in schizophrenia, structural brain abnormalities, problems in neurotransmitter regulation, stress may contribute to the development, poverty contributes as well
diathesis-stress model
argues that a combination of biogenetic disposition and stress causes schizophrenia (diathesis means physical vulnerability or predisposition to a particular disorder)
personality disorders
chronic, maladaptive cognitive-behavioral patterns that are thoroughly integrated into an individual's personality
10 different personality disorders
anti social personality disorder
psychological disorder characterized by guiltlessness, law-breaking, exploitation of others, irresponsibility, and deceit
DSM-IV criteria for anti social personality disorder include:
failure to conform to social norms, deceitfulness, lying, impulsivity or failure to plan ahead,... page 440
borderline personality disorder
a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotions, and of marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in various contexts
BPD symptoms
frantic efforts to avoid being abandoned, unstable and intense interpersonal relationships characterized by extreme shifts.. ph 441
over 26% of Americans age 18 and older suffer from a diagnosable psychological disorder in a given year
they are people!