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HISTORY ID TERMS ANSWERS
Terms in this set (40)
St Bartholomew's Day Massacre
The St Bartholomew's Day Massacre began when Catholics started slaughtering Protestants in the wake of the marriage of the Protestant Henry of Navarre to Margaret, the sister of King Charles IX of France. The massacre began in Paris on August 18, 1572, and spread across France. About five thousand people were killed.
The War of the Three Henrys
The War of the Three Henrys was fought between 1587 and 1589, as part of the French religious wars of the sixteenth century. Initially King Henry and Henry of Guise were allied against Navarre and the Huguenots, but King Henry had Henry of Guise assassinated in 1588 once he became aware than Henry of Guise planned to assassinate him and take his crown. As the Guise family sought revenge, King Henry had to ally himself with Henry of Navarre, When King Henry was assassinated in 1589, this left Henry of Navarre as the heir to the French crown.
The Thirty Years War
The Thirty Years War was mostly fought in the Holy Roman Empire between 1618 and 1648. The conflict began when Ferdinand became king of Bohemia in 1617, and tried to impose pro-Catholic policies on the Protestant population. When he became Ferdinand II, the Holy Roman Emperor, in 1618, the war spread across Germany, and eventually involved almost every major European power.
The Defenestration of Prague
In 1618, Ferdinand, king of Bohemia, sent two Catholic officials to take control of the government of the city of Prague. Protestant rebels seized them and threw them out of the window of a government building. The two men survived the fall, and this event is regarded as the beginning of the Thirty Years War.
The Peace of Westphalia
The Peace of Westphalia brought the Thirty Years War to a conclusion in 1648. Signed in the German region of Westphalia, the Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand III, had his powers reduced, and German states would be allowed to pick their own religious denomination, including Calvinism. The independence of the Dutch Republic was also recognized, while France and Sweden made territorial gains.
Charles I was the king of England and the king of Scotland between 1625 and 1649. His efforts to override the right of the English parliament to be consulted on tax raises, and to introduce Anglicanism into Scotland, eventually led to the English Civil War. Charles was accused of treason for inviting a Scottish army to invade England in 1648, and was beheaded in 1649.
Oliver Cromwell was one of the commanders of the New Model Army that fought against King Charles during the English Civil War. He helped establish the Commonwealth of England after Charles's execution in 1649, before effectively becoming a dictator in 1653. Cromwell eventually took the title of Lord Protector of England, and died in 1658.
Charles II was the son of Charles I. He was crowned king of Scotland in 1651 and was invited to return as king of England in 1660, in the wake of the political turmoil following Oliver Cromwell's death. He ruled until his death in 1685. His reign was notable for his unsuccessful efforts to promote religious tolerance in England.
John Locke was an English philosopher who supported limitations on royal power. In 1689, he published Two Treatises on Government. Locke argued that human beings were inherently good and only required minimum supervision. He stated that the sole function of a government was to protect life, liberty and property, and that rebellion against a tyrannical government was justified.
Leviathan was a book published by the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes in 1651. Hobbes argued that human nature was wicked and required a strong monarchy to keep peace and order in society. Hobbes argued that people had no right to rebel against their monarch, in any circumstances, as this would produce social chaos.
The Glorious Revolution
The Glorious Revolution saw English Protestants invite William of Orange and his wife Mary to invade England to overthrow the Catholic King James II (Mary's father). James fled England, concerned about the loyalty of the English army. Parliament declared James had abdicated and made William and Mary joint monarchs. William signed the Bill of Rights in 1691 that gave parliament greater control over the English monarchy.
The Fronde was a series of rebellions that broke out between 1648 and 1653 during the early reign of King Louis XIV of France. French nobles sought to limit the power of the French monarchy by gaining greater political powers for themselves, while French peasants wanted to reduce the amount of tax they paid. Eventually Louis's royal forces defeated the rebels.
Mercantilism is an economic philosophy most closely associated with France in the early modern period. Mercantilists believed that the amount of wealth in the world was limited, and that economic policies should be geared toward increasing the wealth of the state, as this would increase its political power. Jean Baptiste Colbert, who became French finance minister in 1661, was an advocate of mercantilist policies.
War of Spanish Succession
As Charles II of Spain grew ill in 1700, he named Philip of Anjou, the grandson of Louis XIV of France, as his heir. In 1701, after Charles was dead, Louis XIV refused to declare that Philip could not also become king of France. Fearful of a union of the French and Spanish crowns, England, the Netherlands and the Holy Roman Empire declared war on France that year. The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 brought the war to an end, with Philip giving up his claim to the French throne.
Ivan the Terrible
Ivan the Terrible was the ruler of Moscow who declared himself tsar of all Russia in 1547, a title he kept until his death in 1584. He ruled Russia as an absolute monarch, limiting the power of Russian nobles. He significantly increased the size of the Russian state through conquest.
The Time of Troubles
Feodor Ivanovich became Russian tsar in 1584 after the death of his father Ivan the Terrible. He produced no heir, and his death in 1598 marked the end of the Rurikid dynasty. For the next fifteen years, Russia was embroiled in chaos as different groups sought to seize power. This ended in 1613, when Michael Romanov was chosen as tsar.
Peter the Great
Peter the Great was a Russian tsar who jointly ruled as tsar with his brother Ivan from 1682 - 1696, before ruling by himself until his death in 1725. Peter sought to westernize Russia, through the adoption of western customs, technologies, and military tactics. Peter ruled as an absolute monarch, and his victory over Sweden in the Great Northern War marked the arrival of Russia as a major European power.
The Table of Ranks
The Table of Ranks was a system introduced by Peter the Great in Russia in 1722 to remove the hereditary rights of Russian nobles and to ensure that their advancement in society was entirely dependent upon loyalty to the state. Nobles were expected to give twenty-five years of service to the Russian state, working in the military, civil service or imperial service. All nobles started at the bottom of the table, and could only be promoted up through the fourteen ranks based on merit.
The Great Northern War
The Great Northern War (1700 - 1721) was fought by Russia, with its allies, Poland-Lithuania and Denmark, against Sweden. Under Peter the Great, Russia hoped to conquer the territory around the Baltic Sea, but initially struggled against the forces of the Swedish king Charles XII. The Battle of Poltava in 1709 was a decisive Russian victory, and Sweden ceded Baltic territories to Russia under the Treaty of Nystad in 1721.
Nicolaus Copernicus was a Polish priest and astronomer who published On The Revolutions of Celestial Spheres in 1543, the year he died. In this work, Copernicus claimed that the widely-held belief that the sun and planets revolved around Earth was incorrect, and that in fact it was the earth that revolved around the sun.
Isaac Newton was an English mathematician and astronomer. In 1687, he published Principia Mathematica, in which he defined his three laws of motion and explained the role of gravity in the movement of the planets.
Galileo Galilei was an Italian astronomer who helped improve the capabilities of the telescope and used it to explore our solar system. He was a defender of the Copernican idea of heliocentrism. In 1632, he published Dialogue Concerning Two World Systems: Ptolemian and Copernican, defending the ideas of Copernicus. For this, he was put on trial for heresy the following year and forced to recant his views.
Deism was a religious philosophy that developed in Europe during the Enlightenment. Deists believed that God existed, but played no role in the daily life of people, and they disliked organized religion. Thomas Jefferson was a famous deist, who in 1820 created his own version of the Bible, with all references to religious miracles or anything supernatural absent from the text.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a Swiss philosopher who was an important contributor to the French Enlightenment. Rousseau was skeptical about the Enlightenment belief that rationality and science would lead to greater human happiness. In 1761 he published The Social Contract, in which he argued that the people were the source of all political sovereignty, and that all laws should be in the interests of the majority of people.
The Spirit of Laws
The Spirit of Laws was a book published in 1748 by a French philosopher named Montesquieu. He argued that a government could guarantee liberty for its people if it ensured that its powers were separated into different branches. He also argued that a nation's legal system must include due process, including the right to a fair trial and the presumption of innocence.
Voltaire was the pen name taken by Francois-Marie Arouet, who was a French philosopher during the Enlightenment. He was one of the few philosophes who was able to make a good living from his writings alone, and from 1750 - 1752, he resided at the court of Frederick the Great of Prussia. Among other things, Voltaire campaigned for a post-humous pardon for Jean Calas, who was executed for murdering his own son in 1762.
On Crimes and Punishments
On Crimes and Punishment was a book published by Cesare Beccaria, an Italian legal scholar, in 1764. Beccaria called for the rationalization of legal systems across Europe, which involved full equality for everyone before the law, the abandonment of torture as a tactic of interrogation, and the abolition of the death penalty.
Frederick the Great
Frederick the Great was the king of Prussia from 1740 to 1786. His reign is often seen as characteristic of "enlightened absolutism," in which monarchs ruled with unquestioned authority, but sought to make rational policies that would benefit their people as a whole. Under Frederick, Prussia greatly expanded its size and became the most powerful of the German states.
Constitution of 1791
The Constitution of 1791 was created during the French Revolution. It essentially made France a constitutional monarchy, with a tripartite separation of powers. Louis XVI remained as king, but would share power with the national assembly, while an independent judicial system was also introduced. Only active citizens could participate in elections, and the constitution was overthrown when France was declared a republic in 1792.
Declaration of Pillnitz
The Declaration of Pillnitz was a proclamation by Leopold II, the Holy Roman Emperor (and brother of Marie Antoinette) and Frederick William II of Prussia. It was a declaration of support for Louis XVI of France and his family, implying that force might be used if harm came to the French royal family. The French national assembly, however, interpreted it as a threat of war, and declared war in response in 1792.
The Jacobins were a political club in France during the French Revolution. Under the leadership of Robespierre, the Jacobins were committed to a radical egalitarianism that saw political power being held by the working classes. They believed in the need for strong, centralized government in order to bring about necessary social reforms. With the fall of Robespierre in 1794, many Jacobins were massacred during the Thermidorian Reaction.
The Terror was a period of state-sanctioned violence during the French Revolution from 1793 to 1794. Under the leadership of Robespierre, the French government abandoned legal due process and executed anyone they suspected of being disloyal to the French republic. In total, the state executed almost eighteen thousand people in a one-year period.
The Eighteenth Brumaire
The Eighteenth Brumaire refers to the day in 1799 when Napoleon Bonaparte and the Abbe Sieyes carried out a military coup to overthrow the Directory government of France. Under the pretense that a Jacobin coup had been discovered, Napoleon requested that the Council of the Ancients and the Council of Five Hundred evacuate Paris. When it became clear that the members of the councils were going to resist the coup, Napoleon used soldiers to expel them from the chambers and seized power.
The Code Napoleon was a law code drawn up by Napoleon Bonaparte and introduced as the basis of French law in 1804. This law code replaced the patchwork of local and feudal laws that had existed in France, creating one single set of laws for the entire country. The code made everyone equal before the law, guaranteed religious freedom and property rights, and made women legally dependent upon men.
Battle of Austerlitz
The Battle of Austerlitz was fought (in what is today Czechia) in 1805 between a French army and the combined Austrian and Russian army. Despite being outnumbered, Napoleon Bonaparte led the French army to a decisive victory over the Austrians and Russians. The battle is considered the most remarkable military achievement of Napoleon's career.
Congress of Vienna
The Congress of Vienna was held between 1814 and 1815 to decide what kind of peace should be created after the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte. The Congress decided that France would lose all of the territory it had annexed since 1792, and settled numerous border disputes between other European states. The main participants in the congress, namely France, Britain, Russia, Austria and Prussia, promised to help one another preserve peace in Europe and the political status quo in their respective countries.
The Luddites were a group of English protestors who engaged in violent action to discourage the use of machines in the textile industry. The group were named after a man named Ned Ludd, a fictional character who was said to have destroyed two machines in a factory when he lost his job. The Luddite protests lasted from 1811 to 1816, when they were finally suppressed by the British government.
The Industrial Revolution was a technological, social and economic transformation that changed the western world in the eighteenth and nineteenth century. Beginning with the invention of the flying shuttle by John Kay in England in 1733, the European textile industry became increasingly mechanized, which created a knock-on effect that led to greater productivity in many diverse fields. This radically changed the work habits of many people, and also led to mass urbanization.
The Speenhamland System was an early form of welfare system to help alleviate poverty in Britain. First introduced in Speenhamland in 1795, it called for public money to be used to provide a bonus payment to people's wages whenever bread prices rose too high for people to afford them. Prime minister William Pitt the Younger attempted to introduce this system across Britain in 1796, but the British parliament voted against the idea.
Pierre Joseph Proudhon
Pierre Joseph Proudhon was a radical French thinker in the nineteenth century, whom some consider to have been the first anarchist. In 1840, Proudhon published What Is Property? He answered his own question by stating that "property is theft." He was deeply critical of any profits that were earned from the work of poorly-paid employees and called for businesses to be run by workers' cooperatives.
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