Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Arts and Humanities
Terms in this set (189)
Many sentences are novel
meaning theyve never been uttered before
no language is more or less logical
swearing degrades a language
writing is more perfect than speech
the more time a parent spends teaching their child language, the better children will speak
you can almost always recognize someones background by the way they talk
women talk more than men
there are primitive languages
teases apart patterns of various aspects of human language in order to discover how language works.
Language is systematic
meaning it has rules
Language vaires systematically
there is variation at every level of structure
many properties of language are arbitrary
cannot be predicted from other properties or from general rules
we are not aware of the complex rules of speech
the way you produce and comprehend knowledge
errors in language production or comprehension, including hesitations and slips of the tongue
Info source, transmitter, signal, receiver, and destination
interference in the communication chain
knowledge of word formation
how words combine to form phrases and sentences
interpret meaning, you are using
ability to use context in order to interpret an utterance's meaning. also helps determine when/what is appropriate
collection of all the words you know
stores all of the rules you know about a language
statement of some pattern that occurs in a language
no two speaker have exactly the same mental grammar, therefore no two speakers will find exactly the same set of sentences well-formed
Contains the rules that someone has deduced based on observing speakers' linguistic performance.
the representation of language in a physical medium different from sound
a set of rules designed to give instructions regarding the socially embedded notion of the "correct" or "proper" way to speak or write
set down as a rule or guide
usuage not logic, must determine the descriptive rules of a grammar.
mode of communication
means through which a message is transmitted for any given communication system
universal property requiring that all signals in a communication system have a meaning or function
communication systems must serve some useful purpose
ability of individiuals in a language to both transmit and recieve information
aspects of language that we can acquire only through communicative interaction with other users of the system
the combination of a linguistic form and meaning
the connection between form and meaning is usually arbitary
extreme nonarbitary form-meaning connections. Where the form represents the meaning directly
most notable and obivous nonarbitrary examples
the fact that certain speech sounds seem to be associated with particular meanings
the property of language that allows us to combine together discrete units in order to create larger communicative units
the ability to use words to refer to objects not immediately present or events occurring in the past or future
languages capacity for novel messages to be built up out od discete units
the study of the production of speech sounds
the study of the transmission and the physical properties of speech sounds
the study of the perception of speech sounds
discrete units of the speech stream and can be further subdivided into the categories consonants and vowels
Properties such as stress, tone, and intonation
the motion or positioning of some part of the vocal tract with respect to some other part of the vocal tract in the production of a speech sound
voicing, place, and manner of articulation
pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism
sounds created by exhaling
on a spectrogram, indicates vocal fold vibration
curling the tip of the tongue back behind the alveolar ridge
raising the back of the tongue towards the velum while rounding the lips
method which involves painting the tongue to see where it makes contact with teeth
experimental method that tracks the contacts and contact patterns between the tongue and the hard palate over time
A map that locates where a vowel is produced in the mouth. This space is divided into regions much the same way a geographic map can be ordered by longitude and latitude. The vowel [i] would be produced in the high-front region of vowel space, while [u] would be produced in the high-back region of vowel space.
place and manner of articulation and voicing for consonants. Tongue height, advancement, lip rounding, and tenseness for vowels.
length, intonation, tone, stress
pattern of pitch movement across a sentence, the meaning of the sentence can depend in part on the intonation, it also helps mark boundaries of a syntactic unit
a change in fundamental frequency in the middle of an utterance
a change in fundamental frequency at the end of a phrase, for example, to indicate a question or statement or to group words into a linguistic unit
pitch at which syllables in a word are pronounced. can make difference in a words meaning
air molecules are more croweded together than usual
air molecules are spread farther apart than usual.
sound waves that REPEAT themselves at regular intervals
frequencies that are multiples of fundamental frequency
A pattern for sound analysis that provides a three-dimensional display plotting time on the horizontal axis, frequency on the vertical axis, and intensity in color or gray scale
glides are semi-vowels
resonant frequencies of the vocal tract
Five parameters of a sign
location, palm orientation, hand shape, movement, facial expression
fundamental elements combined into utterances
direction the palm of hand is facing
the study of how sounds are organized within a language and how they interact with eachother.
sounds that are produced as part of a language
restrictions on possible combinations of sounds
speakers use sounds of their native language to replace non-native sounds when pronouncing the words of a foreign language
interchanging two sounds does not result in a change of meaning
change of meaning by replacing one sound (phoneme) with another
set of speech sounds that are percieved to be variants of the same sound
each member of a particular phoneme set
distrubtion of a phone
set of phonetic enviroments in which it occurs. meaning the sounds that come before it and after it in a word
when two sounds occur in the same phonetic enviroment, and using one rather than another changes the meaning of the word.
you will not find a minimal pair; never contrastive with respect to eachother; will not be used in the same phonetic enviroment to produce words with different meanings; allophones of the same phoneme
perceived as being the same sound; do not serve to distinguish the meaning of words; allophones of the same phoneme
can occur in the same environment
mapping of phonemic and phonetic elements can be described as using
the phonemic form of a word or morpheme before phonological rules are applied
the phonetic environment in which a phonological rule applies
a group of sounds in a language that share one or more articulatory or auditory property, to the exclusion of all other sounds in that language
segments that have a high-pitched, hissing sound quality
produced with an obstruction of the airflow (stops, fricatives, affricates)
segments produced with a relatively open passage for the airflow (nasals, liquids, glides, and vowels)
sound (gesture) becomes more like neighboring sound (gesture) with respect to some phonetic property
Nasal Place Assimilation (English)
an alveolar nasal assimilates to the place of articulation of a following consonant
A type of assimilation where a consonant becomes more like neighboring palatal
Long-distance assimilation between vowels.
cause two close or adjacent sounds to become less similar with respect to some property, by means of a change in one or both sounds
(Greek) a stop becomes a fricative when followed by another stop
causes a segment not present at the phonemic level to be added to the phonetic form of the word.
voiceless stop insertion
between a nasal consonant and a voiceless fricative, a voiceless stop with the same place of articulation as the nasal is inserted
eliminate a sound that was present at phonemic levels
/h/ may be deleted in unstressed syllables
change the order of sounds
(Leti) when three consecutive consonants occur, the first consonant trades places with the preceding vowel
makes sounds stronger
type of strengthening, where voiceless stops becomes aspirated when they occur at the beginning of a stressed syllable
cause sounds to become weaker
an alveolar stop is realized as [ɾ] when it occurs after a stressed vowel and before an unstressed vowel
obligatory rules (english)
aspiration, vowel nasalization, vowel lengthening, and liquid and glide devoicing
when we say a language uses a particular sound, we mean that the sound is in the
inventory of phonemes; meaning the sound is contrastive relative to other sounds in the language
the presence of the less common sound implies that the more common sound will also be used in the language
More common sounds have a wider distribution within a language - i.e., they are used in more phonetic environments than less common sounds.
consonants have very few qualities in common with the vowels, and the vowels are likewise very different from the consonants; MORSE CODE
distribution of sounds
set of phonetic enviorments in which it can occur.
near minimal pairs
similar to a minimal pair, but whereas the words in a minimal pair are identical apart from the contrastive sounds, the words in a near-minimal pair are only almost identical, apart from the contrastive sounds
the component of mental grammar that deals with types of words and how words are formed out of smaller meaningful pieces and other words
what a word sounds like when spoken
classes of words that differ in how other words can be constructed out of them. aka parts of speech
open lexical categories
nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs
closed lexical categories
rarely acquire new members (pronouns, determiners, prepositions, conjunctions)
The process of creating a new word from other words (usually by adding affixes)
the creation of different grammatical forms of words
Roots and affixes are called
affix that follows a stem
affix tha precedes a stem
affixes that sound alike but have different meanings or functions
nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs- the morphemes that carry the main meaning of the sentence
determiners, prepositions, pronouns, conjunction
word formation process
the combination of morphemes according to rules of the language in question to make new words or forms of words
morphemes that are inserted inside a root
when affixes appear at the same time as each other
process that forms new words not by means of affixes but from two or more independent words
process of forming new words by doubling either an entire word or part of a word
Reduplication in which an entire morpheme is repeated.
Morphological reduplication in which only part of a morpheme is reduplicated.
the reduplicated piece
The morphological process that uses morpheme-internal modifications to make new words or morphological distinctions.
A morphological process between forms of a word wherein one form cannot be phonologically or morphologically derived from the other. example "is" to "was"
two basic morphological types
analytic and synthetic
made up of sequences of free morphemes--each word consists of a single morpheme, used by itself with meaning and function intact
purely analytic languages
do not use affixes to compose words
Language in which affixes are attached to other morphemes, so that a word may be made up of several meaningful elements.
a language that allows a great number of morphemes per word and has highly regular rules for combining morphemes
A type of synthetic language in which the relationships between the words in a sentence are indicated by bound morphemes that are difficult to separate from the stem.
a synthetic language in which each word is the equivalent to a whole sentence in other languages
nouns to verbs?
stems to which the affixes may combine
stems combined with affixes
words that can be associated with more than one meaning
how sentences and other phrases can be constructed out of smaller phrases and words
a piece of language that has a certain form, a certain meaning, and syntactic properties
a reflection of a speaker's mental grammar, not a conscious test of prescriptive rules
an expression that usually occurs immediately left of the verb
expression that usually occurs (if at all) immediately to the right of the verb
principle of compositionality
A principle of semantic interpretation that states that the meaning of a word, phrase, or sentence depends on both the meaning of its components (morphemes, words, phrases) and how they are combined structurally.
the principle of compositionality underlies the design feature of productivity
A linguistic expression that results from the syntactic combination of smaller expressions. A multi-word linguistic expression. A sentence is a special kind of phrasal expression.
Properties of linguistic expressions that dictate how they can syntactically combine with other expressions, namely, word order and co-occurrence properties.
how expressions are allowed to be ordered with respect to one another
if some expression occurs in a sentence, what other expressions can or must co-occur with it in that sentence?
OSV word order
if the occurance of expression X in a sentence necessitates the occurance of some expression Y, Y is an argument of X
if a complement is a noun phrase we call it
non-essential elements of clauses (usually adverbials) that can be omitted (e.g. "I'll see you in the morning").
certain groups of expressions within a larger phrase can form a syntactic unit
a sentence in which some constituent is displaced or moved to the left.
constituency test where you replace string of words with a single word and see if it makes sense
A word (e.g., a pronoun) that can replace a syntactic constituent.
A group of expressions that have very similar syntactic properties. All expressions that belong to the same syntactic category have more or less the same syntactic distribution.
expressions of the same type can occur in the same position in the sentence
names things that can be counted
cannot be counted or pluralized
A verb that requires no complement to be complete
An action verb that has a direct object
The name of a syntactic category that consists of those expressions that if combined with two expressions of category noun phrase to their right result in a verb phrase. A verb that needs two noun phrase complements.
sentential complement verbs
verbs that require a complement category of S
A kind of adjunct that combines with an expression of syntactic category verb phrase with the resulting expression also being of category verb phrase.
(noun adjunct) a kind of adjunct that combines with an expression of syntactic category noun with the resulting expression also being of category noun
consists of a syntactic category followed by a word
phrase structure rules
rules stating that the structure of a phrase of a specific type consists of one or more constituents in a particular order
linguistic forms can be ambiguous
meaning they can correspond to more than one distinct expression
lexical ambiguity/ homophony
A situation in which a word has two or more meanings. Example: pen-writing instrument pen- a place where pigs live
a situation in which a single phrase or sentence has two (or more) different underlying structures and interpretations
Sets with similar terms
LING Exam 2
Linguistic Anthropology 1st Midterm
Other sets by this creator
Exam 1 intro to language development and disorders
a&p of the speech and hearing mechanisms…
module 2 phonetics quiz
Other Quizlet sets
bull crap i have 2 do because my mom is making me
science exam 1
Stat 200 exam 2