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Adapted from a test, so certain questions might be a little awkward.


the difference between highest and lowest scores


the arithmetic average of a set of scores

standard deviation

a measure of variation based on every score

false consensus effect

overestimating others' agreements with us

illusory correlation

false perception of a relationship between two variables

illusory correlation

false perception of a relationship between two variables


the middle score in a distribution


the most frequently occurring score

hindsight bias

"I-knew-it-all-along" phenomenon

measures of central tendency

the mean, median, and mode


chemically inert substance

measures of variation

the range and standard deviation

critical thinking

reasoning that does not blindly accept agreements


shared ideas and behaviors passed from one generation to the next


a graphed cluster of dots depicting the values of two variables

case study

After detailed study of a gunshot wound victim, a psychologist concludes that the brain region destroyed is likely to be important for memory functions. Which research strategy did the psychologist use to deduce this?

independent variable

In an experiment to determine the effects of exercise on motivation, exercise is the:

control group

In order to deterine the effects of a new drug on memory, one group of subjects is given a pill that contains the drug. A second group is given a sugar pill that does not contain the drug. This second group constitutes the:

principles that help to organize, predict, and explain facts

Theories are defined as:

naturalistic observation

A psychologist studies the play behavior of third grade children by watching groups during recess at school. Which research strategy is being used?

operational definitions

To ensure that other researchers can repeat their work, psychologists use:

ideas that need to be tested against observable evidence

The scientific attitude of skepticism is based on the belief that:


Which of the following is not a basic research strategy used by psychologists? (replication, description, correlation, or experimentation)

can bias both scientific observation and interpretation of data

Psychologists' personal values:

people with small feet tend to have high IQs

If shoe size and IQ are negatively correlated, which of the following is true?


Which of the following research strategies would be best for determining whether alcohol impairs memory? (naturalistic observation, experiment, survey, or case study)

random sample; population

Well-done surveys measure attitudes in a representative subset, or _____, of an entire group, or _____ .


What is the mean of the following distribution of scores: 2, 3, 7, 6, 1, 4, 9, 5, 8, 2?


What is the median of the following distribution of scores: 1, 3, 7, 7, 2, 8, 4?


What is the mode of the following distribution: 8, 2, 1, 1, 3, 7, 6, 2, 0, 2?

all of the above

In generalizing from a sample to the population, it is important that: (a. sample is representative of population; b. sample is large; c. scores in sample have low variability; d. all of the above)

the difference is not likely to be due to chance variation.

When a difference between two groups is "statistically significant," this means that:


A lopsided set of scores that includes a number of extreme or unusual values is said to be:


Juwan eagerly opened an online trading account, believing that his market savvy would allow him to pick stocks that would make him a rich day trader. This belief best illustrates:


Which of the following is the measure of central tendency most affected by a few extreme scores? (mode, range, median, mean)


Which of the following research methods does not belong with the others?

students who thought they had a memory tape believed their memories had improved; but, in fact, there was no improvement

In the experiment on subliminal perception, students listened for five weeks to tapes they thought would enhance their memory or self-esteem. At the end of the experiment:


Have the American Psychological Association and the British Psychological Society have set strict guidelines for the care and treatment of human and animal subjects?


Have the allegations that psychologists rountinely subject animals to pain, starvation, and other inhumane coditions have been proven untrue?


Are animals are used as subjects in almost 25% of all psychology experiments?


A small/ big percentage or animal experiments use shock.

dependent variable

In an experiment to determine the effects of attention on memory, memory is the:

overestimate the extent to which others share our belief.

One reason researchers base their findings on representative samples is to avoid the false consensus effect, which refers to our tendency to:

Events seem more predictable after they have occurred.

What is hindsight bias?

random assignment

The procedure designed to ensure that the experimental and control groups do not differ in any way that might affect the experiment's results is called

the perception of a correlation between two unrelated variables

Illusory correlation refers to:

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