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46 terms

Psychology questions (part 1)

Adapted from a test, so certain questions might be a little awkward.
STUDY
PLAY
range
the difference between highest and lowest scores
mean
the arithmetic average of a set of scores
standard deviation
a measure of variation based on every score
false consensus effect
overestimating others' agreements with us
illusory correlation
false perception of a relationship between two variables
illusory correlation
false perception of a relationship between two variables
median
the middle score in a distribution
mode
the most frequently occurring score
hindsight bias
"I-knew-it-all-along" phenomenon
measures of central tendency
the mean, median, and mode
placebo
chemically inert substance
measures of variation
the range and standard deviation
critical thinking
reasoning that does not blindly accept agreements
culture
shared ideas and behaviors passed from one generation to the next
scatterplot
a graphed cluster of dots depicting the values of two variables
case study
After detailed study of a gunshot wound victim, a psychologist concludes that the brain region destroyed is likely to be important for memory functions. Which research strategy did the psychologist use to deduce this?
independent variable
In an experiment to determine the effects of exercise on motivation, exercise is the:
control group
In order to deterine the effects of a new drug on memory, one group of subjects is given a pill that contains the drug. A second group is given a sugar pill that does not contain the drug. This second group constitutes the:
principles that help to organize, predict, and explain facts
Theories are defined as:
naturalistic observation
A psychologist studies the play behavior of third grade children by watching groups during recess at school. Which research strategy is being used?
operational definitions
To ensure that other researchers can repeat their work, psychologists use:
ideas that need to be tested against observable evidence
The scientific attitude of skepticism is based on the belief that:
replication
Which of the following is not a basic research strategy used by psychologists? (replication, description, correlation, or experimentation)
can bias both scientific observation and interpretation of data
Psychologists' personal values:
people with small feet tend to have high IQs
If shoe size and IQ are negatively correlated, which of the following is true?
experiment
Which of the following research strategies would be best for determining whether alcohol impairs memory? (naturalistic observation, experiment, survey, or case study)
random sample; population
Well-done surveys measure attitudes in a representative subset, or _____, of an entire group, or _____ .
4.7
What is the mean of the following distribution of scores: 2, 3, 7, 6, 1, 4, 9, 5, 8, 2?
4
What is the median of the following distribution of scores: 1, 3, 7, 7, 2, 8, 4?
2
What is the mode of the following distribution: 8, 2, 1, 1, 3, 7, 6, 2, 0, 2?
all of the above
In generalizing from a sample to the population, it is important that: (a. sample is representative of population; b. sample is large; c. scores in sample have low variability; d. all of the above)
the difference is not likely to be due to chance variation.
When a difference between two groups is "statistically significant," this means that:
skewed
A lopsided set of scores that includes a number of extreme or unusual values is said to be:
overconfidence
Juwan eagerly opened an online trading account, believing that his market savvy would allow him to pick stocks that would make him a rich day trader. This belief best illustrates:
mean
Which of the following is the measure of central tendency most affected by a few extreme scores? (mode, range, median, mean)
experiment
Which of the following research methods does not belong with the others?
students who thought they had a memory tape believed their memories had improved; but, in fact, there was no improvement
In the experiment on subliminal perception, students listened for five weeks to tapes they thought would enhance their memory or self-esteem. At the end of the experiment:
yes
Have the American Psychological Association and the British Psychological Society have set strict guidelines for the care and treatment of human and animal subjects?
yes
Have the allegations that psychologists rountinely subject animals to pain, starvation, and other inhumane coditions have been proven untrue?
no
Are animals are used as subjects in almost 25% of all psychology experiments?
small
A small/ big percentage or animal experiments use shock.
dependent variable
In an experiment to determine the effects of attention on memory, memory is the:
overestimate the extent to which others share our belief.
One reason researchers base their findings on representative samples is to avoid the false consensus effect, which refers to our tendency to:
Events seem more predictable after they have occurred.
What is hindsight bias?
random assignment
The procedure designed to ensure that the experimental and control groups do not differ in any way that might affect the experiment's results is called
the perception of a correlation between two unrelated variables
Illusory correlation refers to: