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03 physiological changes of aging

Terms in this set (18)

dermatologic changes in aging.

SKIN WRINKLING
-muscles of the face are capable of [ ]
-smiles, laughter, frowns, disappointment, anger, rage, and surprise are [ ]
-the hand of time captures these expressions and outlines them on the [ ]
-by age of [ ], most people bear the typical lines of their expressions
-when you lay on your side, your face feels [ ]
-there are facial expression wrinkles vs. [ ]

[ ] AGES MORE!
-smokers have bags under their eyes
-wrinkles and creases around the [ ]

SUN
-[ ] = rough, leathery looking skin with wrinkles, irregular pigmentation, [ ] broken [ ] & [ ]
-due to [ ]

EPIDERMIS:
-number of EPIDERMIS CELLS DECREASES BY [ ] per decade and divide more [ ] making the skin less able to [ ]
-EPIDERMAL CELLS BECOME [ ] making the skin look noticeably thinner
-changes in the epidermis allows more [ ] the skin

IN BETWEEN:
-[ ] OF DERMAL-EPIDERMAL JUNCTION [ ]
-making the skin look more [ ] and making it easier for skin to [ ]
-this process also decreases the amount of nutrients available to the epidermis by [ ] THE SURFACE AREA IN THE CONTACT WITH THE [ ]
-[ ] repair/turnover

DERMIS:
-these changes cause the skin to wrinkle and sag
-dermal layer [ ]
-[ ] is produced
-[ ] fibers that provide elasticity wear out
-DECREASE FUNCTION OF [ ] contribute to dry skin

SUBCUTANEOUS:
-fat cells get [ ]
-this leads to more noticeable wrinkles and sagging
-increased vulnerability to [ ]
-[ ] of body to cold (also affected by diminished [ ] to skin and extremities) and [ ]
-some areas lose fat ([ ])
-some areas gain fat ([ ])
-modification of fat pads leads to [ ]
-areas of fat tend to become [ ] instead of a smooth almost continuous layer, the fat pads appears as [ ]
dermatologic changes in aging.

SKIN WRINKLING
-muscles of the face are capable of tremendous movement
-smiles, laughter, frowns, disappointment, anger, rage, and surprise are all recorded
-the hand of time captures these expressions and outlines them on the face
-by age of 40, most people bear the typical lines of their expressions
-when you lay on your side, your face feels compression, tension, and shear forces
-there are facial expression wrinkles vs. sleep wrinkles

SMOKING AGES MORE!
-smokers have bags under their eyes
-wrinkles and creases around the lips

SUN
-solar elastosis = rough, leathery looking skin with wrinkles, irregular pigmentation, plaques, broken blood vessels & actinic keratosis
-due to repeated overdoses of sun exposure

EPIDERMIS:
-number of EPIDERMIS CELLS DECREASES BY 10% per decade and divide more slowly making the skin less able to repair itself quickly
-EPIDERMAL CELLS BECOME THINNER making the skin look noticeably thinner
-changes in the epidermis allows more FLUID TO ESCAPE the skin

IN BETWEEN:
-RETE-RIDGES OF DERMAL-EPIDERMAL JUNCTION FLATTEN OUT
-making the skin look more FRAGILE and making it easier for skin to SHEAR
-this process also decreases the amount of nutrients available to the epidermis by DECREASING THE SURFACE AREA IN THE CONTACT WITH THE DERMIS
-slower repair/turnover

DERMIS:
-these changes cause the skin to wrinkle and sag
-dermal layer thins
-less collagen is produced
-elastin fibers that provide elasticity wear out
-DECREASE FUNCTION OF SEBACEOUS & SWEAT glands contribute to dry skin

SUBCUTANEOUS:
-fat cells get smaller
-this leads to more noticeable wrinkles and sagging
-increased vulnerability to PRESSURE SORES
-LESS INSULATION of body to cold (also affected by diminished blood flow to skin and extremities) and heat
-some areas lose fat (forehead and cheeks)
-some areas gain fat (mouth and jaw)
-modification of fat pads leads to contour deficiencies
-areas of fat tend to become farther apart. instead of a smooth almost continuous layer, the fat pads appears as separate structures
changes of HEART during aging

there is linear LOSS OF MYOCARDIAL CELLS beginning during infancy (38 million per year)

the remaining myocardial cells HYPERTROPHY (ventricular wall thickness is therefore preserved over time)

INCREASED FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE matrix

DELAYED DIASTOLIC RELAXATION coupled with increased myocardial stiffness leads to increased venous filling pressures

the hearts INOTROPIC AND CHRONOTROPIC responses as well as the vascular RESPONSIVENESS TO CATECHOLAMINES are reduced
-sympathetic nervous system stimulation is apparently related to receptor function

DECREASED CARDIAC OUTPUT (CO):
-under normal circumstances, the heart continues to adequately supply all parts of the body
-however, an aging heart may be slightly LESS ABLE TO TOLERATE INCREASED WORKLOADS
-examples of stressors include illness, infection, emotional stress, injury, extreme physical exertion

both systolic and diastolic blood pressures increase with age

blood pressure regulation: older patients are at high risk for ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION

cardiovascular response to exercise declines progressively.
-maximal HR, SV, CO, ejection fraction decrease
-end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes increase
-the age related diastolic dysfunction makes the elderly more susceptible to the effects of tachycardia

young heart:
-during exercise, the heart size is smaller than at rest
-young and conditioned person can get their proper amount of oxygen at a much lower heart rate

old heart:
-during exercise, right before the heart squeezes, the heart enlarges. size of the heart is the SAME as at rest
-older people tend to tire more during exercise
-older conditioned people can also get more oxygen at a lower heart rate but lower than younger people