86 terms

AP Human Geography Unit V - Agricultural and Rural Land Use

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Adaptive Strategies
A group's system of economic production
Agrarian
Concerning farms, farmers, or the use of land
Agribusiness
Commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations
Agricultural Industrialization
Process whereby the farm has moved from being the centerpiece of agricultural production to being one part of an integrated string of industrial processes; the use of machinery in agriculture
Agricultural Landscape
The land chosen to farm on and what is planted in the fields
Agricultural Location Model
An attempt to explain the pattern of agricultural land use in terms of accessibility, costs, distance, and prices
Agricultural Origins
The temporal and locational beginning of agriculture
Agriculture
The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain
Animal Domestication
The conscious manipulation of a specific animal species by humans
Aquaculture
The rearing of aquatic animals or the cultivation of aquatic plants for food
Biorevolution
The revolution of biotechnology and the use of it in societies
Biotechnology
The manipulation of living organisms or their components to produce useful usually commercial products
Collective Farm
A jointly operated amalgamation of several small farms, especially one owned by the government
Commercial Agriculture
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm
Intensive Commercial Agriculture
The production of crops that give high yields and high market value per unit of land
Extensive Commercial Agriculture
A system of agriculture characterized by low inputs of labor per unit of land area
Core
The center of a city
Periphery
The outer limits of a city
Crop Rotation
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil
Cultivation Regions
The regions in which large amounts of agriculture take place
Dairying
The business of producing, storing, and distributing milk and its products
Debt-for-Nature Swap
A financial transaction in which a portion of a developing nation's foreign debt is pardoned in exchange for local investments in environmental conservation measures
Diffusion
The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
Double Cropping
Harvesting twice a year from the same field
Primary Sector
The portion of the economy that makes direct use of natural resources
Secondary Sector
The portion of the economy that creates a finished, tangible product
Tertiary Sector
The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, and sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment
Quaternary Sector
The portion of the economy which typically includes services such as information generation and sharing, information technology, consultation, education, and other knowledge-based services
Quinary Sector
The portion of the economy that includes the highest levels of decision-making
Environmental Modification
Changes in the ecosystem resulting from human activities
Pesticides
Substances used for destroying insects or other organisms harmful to cultivated plants or to animals
Soil Erosion
The wearing away of land surface by wind or moving water
Desertification
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting
Extensive Subsistence Agriculture
Consists of any agricultural economy in which the crops and/or animals are used nearly exclusively for local or family consumption on large areas of land and minimal labor input per acre
Shifting Cultivation
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period
Slash-and-Burn Agriculture
Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris
Milpa
Cultivation of crops in tropical forest clearings in which forest vegetation has been removed by slashing and burning
Swidden
A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning
Nomadic Herding / Pastoralism
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals
Extractive Industry
Industries involved in the activities of prospecting, exploring, developing, and producing for non-regenerative natural resources from Earth
Farm Crisis
The mass production of farm products that decreases the market prices of those products to unprofitable levels
Farming
The activity or business of growing crops and raising livestock
Feedlot
A plot of land on which livestock are fattened for market
First Agricultural Revolution
The period roughly 10,000 years ago during which humans first began domesticating crops and animals
Fishing
The activity of catching fish, either for food or as a sport
Food Chain
The series of processes by which food is grown or produced, sold, and eventually consumed; a hierarchical series of organisms each dependent on the next as a source of food
Forestry
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests
Globalized Agriculture
The global diffusion of agriculture, agricultural technology, and innovative agricultural techniques
Green Revolution
Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers
Growing Season
The period of each year when native and ornamental plants grow best
Hunting and Gathering
A nomadic society in which most or all food is obtained from wild plants and animals
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land
Intertillage
The agricultural practice of clearing fields with various tools and technologies
Livestock Ranching
A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area
Market Gardening
The small-scale production of fruits, vegetables, and flowers as cash crops sold directly to local consumers
Mediterranean Agriculture
An agricultural system practiced in Mediterranean-style climates in which diverse specialty crops comprise profitable agricultural operations
Mineral Fuels
Hydrocarbons formed from the remains of dead plants and animals and burned for energy
Mining
The practice of extracting minerals and other underground resources
Planned Economy
An economic system in which the elements of an economy are subject to government control and regulation
Plant Domestication
The intentional cultivation of crops
Plantation Agriculture
Production system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop
Renewable
A resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by humans
Nonrenewable
A resource that is a finite supply capable of being exhausted
Rural Settlement
Sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities
Dispersed Settlement
A settlement pattern characterized by a number of separate farmsteads scattered throughout the area
Nucleated Settlement
A settlement pattern with farmhouses clustered around a focal point
Building Material
Any material which is used for construction purposes
Village Form
The pattern of town construction, which is influenced by site
Sauer, Carl O.
Geographer who defined cultural landscape as an area fashioned from nature by a cultural group
Second Agricultural Revolution
The development of improved sanitation, storage, and fertilization techniques
Specialization
The process of becoming efficient with one type of agriculture as a catalyst to maximize profit
Staple Grains
A type of edible grain that provides the essential sustenance for a population
Suitcase Farm
An American commercial farm on which no one lives, and work/harvesting is done by migratory workers
Survey Patterns
Method of separating land, usually devised by the government
Long Lots
Long, narrow land divisions, usually lined up along a waterway
Metes and Bounds
A system of describing land that uses physical features of the local geography, along with directions and distances, to define the boundaries of a particular piece of land
Township-and-Range
A rectangular land division scheme designed to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the U.S. interior
Sustainable Yield
The highest rate at which a renewable resource can be used indefinitely without reducing its available supply
Third Agricultural Revolution
A series of research, development, and technology transfer initiatives that increased agriculture production worldwide, particularly in the developing world
Mechanization
Industrial use of tools to reduce reliance on human labor
Chemical Farming
The application of synthetic fertilizers to the soil to enhance yields
Food Manufacturing
Adding economic value to agricultural products through a range of treatments
"Tragedy of the Commons"
A conflict over resources between the priority of one individual's interests versus the interests of their community
Transhumance
The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures
Truck Farm
A farm on which commercial gardening and fruit farming occurs
Von Thünen, Johann Heinrich
Farmer who first proposed the von Thünen model, which is a model of agricultural land use
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