SOC Exam #1
Terms in this set (67)
A group of people who live in a defined geographic area, who interact with one another, and who share a common culture
an awareness of the relationship between a person's behavior and experience and the wider culture that shaped the person's choices and perceptions
father of sociology
He believed that societies grew and changed as a result of the struggles of different social classes over the means of production.
He is known best for his 1904 book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
argued that the influence of culture on human behavior had to be taken into account.
Should be aware of how their own cultural biases could influence their research
trends among and between large groups and societies
small groups and individual interactions
the use of sociology to solve problems- from the micro level of classroom interaction and family relationships to the macro level of crime and pollution
The way each part of society functions together to contribute to the whole
The way inequalities contribute to social differences and perpetuate differences in power
One-to-one interactions and communications
the consequences of a social process that are sought or anticipated
the unsought consequences of a social process
the practice of evaluating another culture according to the standards of one's own culture
the practice of assessing a culture by its own standards, and not in comparison to another culture
an experience of personal disorientation when confronted with an unfamiliar way of life
a culture's standard for discerning what is good and just in society
the moral views and principles of a group
direct, appropriate behavior in the day-to-day practices and expressions of a culture
norms that are strictly forbidden in society
the visible and invisible rules of conduct through which societies are structured
a symbolic system of communication
groups that share a specific identification, apart from a society's majority, even as the members exist within a larger society
groups that reject and oppose society's widely accepted cultural patterns
The spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one culture to another
the gap of time between the introduction of material culture and nonmaterial culture's acceptance of it
Cultural leveling is the process by which different cultures approach each other as a result of travel and communication.
a society which consists of several distinct cultures and groups
forces producing a global culture
Unified global economy
charles cooley research
He asserted that people's self understanding is constructed, in part, by their perception of how others view them—a process termed "the looking glass self"
George Mead's 3 Stages of Self
1. Preparatory stage(IMITATION): children are only capable of imitation, They copy the actions of people with whom they regularly interact, such as their mothers and fathers.
2. Game stage(PLAY): children learn to consider several roles at the same time and how those roles interact with each other. (pretend)
3. Generalized other(GAME): the common behavioral expectations of general society. By this stage of development, an individual is able to imagine how he or she is viewed by one or many others (organized play)
The story of Genie and where the research took place
girl found when she was 13, was starved and tortured, couldnt speak, she was forced by her dad to stay completely silent. weighed 59lbs.
Research took place in LA, CA
the common behavioral expectations of general society
Children kept from society and are unable to interact normally
a group made up of people who are similar in age and social status and who share interests
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
pioneer in observational learning (AKA social learning), stated that people profit from the mistakes/successes of others; Studies: Bobo Dolls-adults demonstrated 'appropriate' play with dolls, children mimicked play
Pica is an eating disorder that involves eating items that are not typically thought of as food and that do not contain significant nutritional value, such as hair, dirt, and paint chips.
a setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society and manipulated by an administrative staff
Nazi concentration camps, religious cults, prison, military, and
recovery treatment facilities are also examples.
nurture—the relationships and caring that surround us (environment)
nature- who we are is based entirely in genetics
the process by which old behaviors are removed and new behaviors are learned in their place
when you move out for college or to live on your own you are resocialized bc you have more freedom and learn to do shit for yourself
the way we prepare for future life roles
the process by which new members of a total institution lose aspects of their old identities and are given new ones
They may be given a number as identification, a uniform that is worn by all others, and sometimes they must give up possessions.
jail- you get a number and uniform
the status outside of an individual's control, such as sex or race. (stereotype that you are born with)
the status a person chooses, such as a level of education or income. (voluntarily)
ranking high on some dimensions of social class and low on others
the responsibilities and benefits that a person experiences according to his or her rank and role in society
all the statuses a person holds at a given time
patterns of behavior that are representative of a person's social status
political, educational, economic, family, religion
the amish people and the way of life
Erving Goffman and impression management (DRAMATURGY)
FRONT STAGE- we are expected to put on a costume and act different when in front of the audience. (we put up a front)
BACK STAGE-the performer can relax; he can drop his front, forgo speaking in his lines, and step out of character (not being watched)
VIRTUAL IMPRESSION- the front you put up on social media???
a group a person belongs to and feels is an integral part of his identity
a group that an individual is not a member of, and may even compete with
small, informal groups of people who are closest to us
groups to which an individual compares herself
larger and more impersonal groups that are task-focused and time limited
a social group with two members
a social group with three members
Bureaucracies : characteristics and dysfunctions
formal organizations characterized by a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, explicit rules, and impersonality
types of leaders
authoritarian leader-a leader who issues orders and assigns tasks
democratic- a leader who encourages group participation and consensus-building before moving into action
laissez-faire- a hands-off leader who allows members of the group to make their own decisions
expressive leader- a leader who is concerned with process and with ensuring everyone's emotional wellbeing
instrumental leader- a leader who is goal oriented with a primary focus on accomplishing tasks
the style a leader uses to achieve goals or elicit action from group members
a feeling that you should do something because that is what your friends want
Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
the shared experiences, stories, beliefs, and norms that characterize an organization
iron law of oligarchy
the theory that an organization is ruled by a few elites rather than through collaboration
Research in this field is constantly being disputed...most agree though that: higher quality centers result in more interactions and less behavioral problems with the children AND those children living in dysfunctional families or poverty benefit from being in day care.
however, the more you were in daycare, the weaker the maternal bond