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48 terms

AP Psych Unit 1

STUDY
PLAY
structuralism
even very complex experiments can be broken down into component parts of sensations and feeling
psychology
science of behavior and mental processes
biological perspective
emphasizes studying the physical bases of human and animal behavior
psychodynamic perspective
emphasizes importance of unconscious influences, early life experiences, and inter-personal relationships
behavioral perspective
perspective of psychology which says that psychology should focus on observable behaviors
humanistic perspective
focuses on the modivation of people to grow psychologically
cognitive perspective
psychology experienced a return to the study of mental processes influence behavior
cross-cultural perspective
study of diversity of human behavior in different cultural settings and countries
social loafing
people work harder alone than when with a group
social psychology
the study of how we think about, influence, and relate to each other
attribution theory
how we explain someones behavior
fundamental attribution error
the tendency of viewers to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate impact of personal disposition
attitudes
feelings based on beliefs
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
a tendency for people who agree to a small action to comply later to a larger one
cognitive dissonance theory
we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent
chameleon effect
contagious behavior (ex. yawning, sneezing, looking up)
mood linkage
we are happier when around happier people
conformity
adjusting ones behavior or thinking to coincide with a groups standards
Solomon Asch
created idea of conformity (did experiment with college students sitting around a table and answering a question wrongly based on a groups ideas)
normative social influence
influence resulting from a persons desire to gain approval /avoid disapproval
informational social influence
ones willingness to accept others opinions about reality
Stanley Milgrim
tested to see about commands and how people respond to it (the shock experiment)
social facilitiation
some people do better when performing in front of an audience
deindividuation
less self-conscious/self-restraint when in a group situation
group-polarization
occurs when people within a group discuss an idea that most of them either favor/oppose
groupthink
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
prejudice
attitude toward a group-usually cultural,ethnic, or gender
stereotypes
a generalized belief about a group of people
discrimination
negative behavior toward a group
ingroup
us, our group
outgroup
excluding "them"
ingroup bias
favoring of ones own group
scapegoat theory
prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone else to blame
just-world phenomenon
tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve, and deserve what they get
social traps
a situation in which the conflicting parties by each rationally pursuing their self-interest became caught in destructive behavior
mirror-image perceptions
as we see "them", as untrustworthy and evil intentioned- so "they" see us that way (vicious circle)
altruism
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
bystander effect
any bystander less likely to give aid to someone if lots of others are present
social exchange theory
our social behavior is an exchange process, aim to max benefits and minimize costs
recriprocity norm
expectation that we should return help to not harm those who help us
social-responsibility norm
an expectation that people will help those dependent on them
Philip Zimbardo
did the Stanford Prison experiment
stanford prison experiment
people were assigned to be guards and prisoners- people had to play their role, and there was no rules, and people by the end of the first day WERE their role
evolutionary perspective
application of the principles of evolution to explain psychological processes and phenomena
Edward Titchener
created idea of structuralism
Wilhelm Wundt
opened the first psychology lab
William James
created idea of functionalism
Functionalism
behavior functions to allow people and animals to adapt