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The Roman World Takes Shape Chapter 5

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Italy was not broken up into small isolated valleys but the mountains in Italy were less rugged and the land was more fertile which supported what
Population growth
The ancestors of the Romans were called
Latins (800 BC)
How many different villages did the Latins have along the river
Seven
The Latin eventually grow and create the city of
Rome
After creating Rome they are known as the
Romans
The Romans share the Italian peninsula with ______________ in the south and ___________ in the north
Greek (south) and Etruscans (north)
In what year do the Roman kick out the Etruscans, creating the start of a Roman state
509 BC
The Romans create a ___________ which is a government that belongs to the people, where people choose officials to run, and it prevent one person from having too much power
Republic
In the early Republic the _________ made the laws and controlled the government
Senate
Who made up the senate and were the land owning elite
Patricians
Each year the senator will nominate ___________ from the Patrician class to spectate the government and command the army
Consuls
To make sure consuls do not have too much power they are only elected on ___________ term
One year
Senate and consuls have to check with each other to make sure there is a
Balance in power
Only during _______ the Senate can elect a dictator, one person with all the power
War
The dictator can only be a dictator for
6 months
Who are the farmers, merchants, and artists s that want to be in the government
Plebeians
Once the plebeians are in the government they are allowed to elect
Tribunes
the tribunes protect who and veto laws that could be harmful to them
Lower class
The Senate is forced to except Plebeians as member and soon they can become
Consuls
After Patricians and Plebeians are both in government the Roman Republic becomes more _____________, it is open to all the people
Democratic
The plebeians say that they never knew the laws because they were never
Written down
In response to the laws not being written down the senate creates
The Law of Twelve Tables
The basic unit of Roman society is
Family
Who is the head of the family
Father or husband
Who has more freedom Patrician women or Plebeian women
Patrician women
What are two things Roman women can do now that they have more freedom
own property and run businesses
Roman education, the Patricians get better education because
they are able to learn to read and write
Wealthy Roman families hire _________ for mainly boys
tutors
Boys had to learn what in order to be in politics
public speaking
The Roman believe which god rules over the sky and other gods in Rome
Jupiter
Roman participate in _________ to worship gods and goddesses
festivals
What is expanding Roman power throughout Italy
Roman Army
What year did the Roman control most of the Italian Peninsula
270 B.C.
The Roman military was the what which included 5000 men
Legion
Most men in the Roman Military were
Volunteers who use their own weapons
What did the Romans mix rewards with to scare the men into winning
Punishment
How did the Romans treat the people that they conquered
Good
Select groups of men were given citizenship so they can be in
Politics
As trade increased Roman what spread
Customs
Conquering and controlling new places gave the Romans control of
New Trade Routes
The Romans start to fight with a city state in North Africa called
Carthage
Romans wars against Carthage are known as
Punic Wars
What Punic war do the Romans win new islands, Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia
First
What Punic War took 15 years for Hannibal to win a battle throughout Italy,
Second
who was on Carthage side and never successfully conquered Rome
Hannibal
What Punic war is Carthage completely destroyed and people are enslaved
Third
After Punic Wars what sea do the Romans now conquer
The Mediterranean sea
Roman state is going to be committed to a policy of establishing control of foreign land and people, also known as
imperialism
What happens when Roman enter Hellenistic world
One by one the empires of Alexander the great surrender
Macedonia, Greece and parts of Asia minor surrender but ________ allies itself with Rome
Egypt
By what year does Roman empire expand from Spain down to Egypt and past Greece
133 BC
Wealthy families buy massive farming estates called
latifundia
Smaller farmers are hurt because they have to ___________ workers and they are not producing as many goods
pay
As Romans conquer new territory people who live on farms are forced to __________ on them
work
Small farmers go in ________ because they do not have enough money to keep farms open
debt
They is going to be a massive gap between who, causing riots
the rich and the poor
Wealthy people are not help anyone making the poor _______
mad
What two brother try to attempt a reform for the farmers who can no longer afford their farm
Gracchus brothers
Both brother are _______ at different times
tribues
what did the brothers want to do
dispute land back to farmers and use government money to buy grain to feed the poor
Both brother are killed by __________ for trying to make a reform
Senate
Rome breaks out into civil wars because the main problem is who should have power over Roman Republic, during the civil wars what is becoming more of a professional army
Roman legion
The professional army is loyal to commander because they will give them
land
The sides are keeping it the same and let who have to power
senate
everyone is fighting for land because more land means more
money
Out of the casts of the Civil War who emerges as a strong military leader
Julius Ceasar
Julius Caesar and and who rule Roman Politics
Pompey
Caesar conquers ____ which is present day France and Belgium
Gaul
Pompey get scared and jealous and tells Senate to tell Caesar to give up army and go back to ________
Rome
Caesar returns to Rome to fight Pompey and wins the fight and forces Senate to make him
dictator
Between 48 and 44 BC Caesar creates multiple reforms including
more jobs for the poor, and give land back, along with expanding Roman Citizenship
Caesar adopts calendar from the
Egyptians
Caesars enemies though that he was trying to make himself
king
Caesar is _______ after arriving at the Senate in 44 B.C
stabbed
Why did the senate kill Caesar
to save the Republic
Who fights over power in Rome when Caesar dies
Mark Antony and Octavian
Does Mark Antony or Octavian win
Octavian
Senate give Octavian the name ____________ which means "noble one"
Augustus
What new ruler changes the Roman Republic to an empire, creates a police force, allows men to have high level jobs, and creates a census
Augustus
what is a population count to see who should pay taxes
census
August changes currency system to __________ to make trading easier
everyone has the same currency
What two emperors were considered evil and insane
Caligula and Nero
first emperor who named his horse a consul
Caligula
who persecuted all Christians and burned Rome to the ground
Nero
he make Roman laws the same for everyone
Hadrian
this stable government brought peace, order , unity, and prosperity to Roman Empire
Pax Romana
After Pax Romana, The Roman Empire now reaches from
Britain to Syria
Two forms of entertainment in Rome
Chariot races and gladiator contests
In Gladiator contests in they won, they sometimes also won freedom but if they are boring the crowd they would
die
These attractions were _________ the social and economical problems happening in Rome
hiding
the Greek Hellenistic and Roman achievements will blend together creating the __________ civilization
Greco -Roman
who wrote stories to try and make the Romans look as heroic as the Greeks, he tries to united Roman empire through patriotic stories
Virgil
Roman writers use _______ to make fun of Roman society
satire
What type of people wrote about rise and fall in Roman power and the great heroes in the war
Historians
The Romans _________show concern for the well -being of the Roman people and stress the importance of fate
philosophy
Roman art sculptures where very realistic, emperors were idealistic, and __________ where put on faces of these sculptures
exprressions
Romans had frescoes and ___________, which are pictures made of color stone, glass, or cement
mosaics
In Roman what they used columns and were even and also introduced___________
domes
The Romans have the __________, which is filled with temples to honor Roman gods and goddesses
Pantheon
Everything in Roman architecture was built
massive
Romans are going to build ____________, which are bridge like structures that carry water to the hill from the Roman cities
aqueducts
Romans get all the Greeks credit for ____________ because Greeks are now part of the Roman empire
scientific research
Roman scientist __________, said that earth was at the center of the universe
Ptoleny
The greatest legacy of the Roman Empire was
Their commitment of law and justices
The Roman Law becomes the base for what all throughout the world
Legal Systems
Who we merged that everyone in the empire must follow the same law
Law of Nation
You are innocent until proven
Guilty
You have the right to face the accuser and offer your
Defense
Guilty has to be proven with solid
evidence
Judges are expected to make this type of judgement
Fair
Punishments were different for different what
social classes
Most Romans are ______________ which means that they believed in more than one god
Polytheistic
Romans tolerate new religion groups as long as they follow their
Rules
As long as the people who practice different religions were loyal by honoring the gods and goddesses, and say ___________ was a divine spirit they were allowed to worship in their own way
Emperor
Generally who in the empire were okay with the Roman demand because they are Polytheistic
Conquered people
By 63 BC The Romans conquer ______________ which is where most of the Jews of the time were living
Judea
Romans do not force who to worship gods and goddesses to avoid violating their religion
Jews
The Jews in Judea were split, one living how and the other wanting to do what against Roman rule
Living under Roman rule, wanting to revolt against Roman rule
The revolting group of Jews were called the
zealots
The zealots create a ________________, not under Roman rule
Independent state
In Judaism they are still waiting for the
Messiah
What means king sent by God
Messiah
When Jews revolt against Roman rule they constantly lose but Judaism is
Spreading
Jesus begins a new religion called
Christianity
Jesus is born in ______________ and grew up in ____________
Bethlehem, Nazareth
Jesus uses ____________ stories that teach lessons when he preaches
Parables
Jesus starts preaching at the age of
30
How many apostles were there?
12
In Christianity how many gods do they believe in
One
If you believe in Jesus you will receive
Salvation
Why was Jesus a threat to Roman rule
Jesus preached about monotheistic and Romans were Polytheistic
Who brought Christianity to Rome
Peter
Who spread Christianity throughout the Roman Empire
Paul
Nero persecuted hundreds of Christian because they do not believe in gods and goddesses and uses them as a scapegoat (one to blame) for the __________________ problems in Rome
Economic
Everyone who was persecuted under Nero are known as _________ this included Peter and Paul
Martyrs
The persecution of Christians is going to end with who
Constantine
Constantine issues ____________ granting freedom of all worship in the Roman Empire
Edict of Milan
In order to become Christian you must be
Baptized
Only men allowed, a group that could conduct Christian services
Clergy
The Christian community and the clergy together were called the
Diocese
Each diocese has their own group of priest and above them __________
Bishops
Eventually the bishops in _________, Alexandria, Jerusalem, and Constantinople are going to gain more power
Rome
Those bishops are going to take the title of _____________ which means they have power over the bishops in their area
Patriarch
The Christian church is going to develop into a ___________ where officials are organized by rank
Hierarchy
The bishop fight for complete control and are going to take the title of __________ and claim authority of all other bishops in the Roman Empire
Pope
People claim that some bishops in And Christians are going to be ________________ people who are going against the Catholic Church teachings
Heretics
Eventually church leaders are going to meet about how to ____________ Christianity an end all of the power disputes
Teach
What year does the gold age of the Pax Romana end
180
Lots of political violence in the Roman Empire and people overthrow and kill
Emperors
People have to pay high taxes so what two things keep working
Government and army
Who tries to restore Roman Empire in 284 BC, splits empire in two
Diocletian
After the Roman Empire split was the east of West wealthier
East
What slows down because fixed price are created by Diocletian on goods and services
Inflation
Who had to take over fathers jobs so someone was always making goods
Sons
Who rules the western half of the empire in 312
Constantine
Why does Constantine move capital
To try an unify Rome
What people are coming to Rome from the north east of Gaul and the north of Greece
Germanic people
Civil wars where affects Roman Empire because Huns begin to come in
Asia
The _________ are moving from Asia toward the Roman Empire but run into the Germanic people (lived in the border)
Huns
The Germanic people move away from the Huns into where for safety but as they move in they are starting to take over the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
What 3 places first fall to the Germanic people
Britain, France, and Spain
Who is the leader of the Huns and he is invading the borders of the Roman Empire which is causing the Germanic people to go into the empire
Atilla
By what year do the Germanic people conquer and take over Rome
476
What is the most obvious reason for the fall of the Roman Empire
Military invasions
The attacks against Romans were successful because Roman Legion lacked
Discipline and training
Rome hired foreign soldiers, called __________, to help protect the empire.
Mercenaries
What problems cause the falls of rome
Military attacks and political turmoil
Government lost people support because there were to many _____________ trying to run the Roman Empire
Corrupt officials
Slipping Empire because the wealthy east did not help the
West
Roman architecture emphasized
Simplicity
The Pax Romana ended in A.D. 180, after the death of
Marcus Aurelius