40 terms

BJU Life Science Chapter 10

BJU life science
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plant
Multicellular eukaryotic living organism with cell walls made of cellulose that has plastids such as chloroplasts and produces its own food through photosynthesis.
cellulose
The primary structural compound in plant cell walls, composed of long chains of sugar molecules.
three
Plants bring God glory and show His amazing creativity. God created plants on day _________ of creation and designed them to capture the light of the sun and turn it into energy for consumers to eat as well as provide living creatures with oxygen to breathe and perform aerobic cellular respiration.
botany
The study of plants.
node
A point along a plant stem where a leaf, branch, or flower is produced.
blade
The broad part of a plant leaf.
leaf venation
Pattern of leaf veins in plants: pinnate (V shaped), palmate (palm of hand), parallel (long parallel lines)
bud
An undeveloped shoot located at the node on a plant stem.
petiole
The small stalk that connects a leaf to the stem of a plant.
leaf arrangement
Pattern in which leaves are arranged on a stem: alternate (1 leaf/node), opposite (2 leaves/node), whorled (3+ leaves/node)
taproot system
A root system consisting of a large, main root (the taproot) from which smaller roots branch (often dicots).
fibrous root system
A root system lacking a taproot and consisting of many small roots that come straight from a stem (often monocots).
herbaceous
Having the characteristics of green and leafy stems (monocots and the first year's growth of many dicots).
woody
Type of stem that is hard and not very flexible, capable of supporting a lot of weight (dicots) -- has annual rings.
turgor pressure
The pressure that is exerted on the inside of cell walls and that is caused by the movement of water into the cell; helps support the plant.
vascular tissue
In plants, the tissue (xylem or phloem) that transports water and nutrients throughout the plant.
xylem
In plants, the type of vascular tissue that transports water and dissolved minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant (only transports up).
phloem
In plants, the type of vascular tissue that transports food in the form of sugars from the leaves to the rest of the plant (transports up or down).
fibers
Thick walled cells that help support vascular tissues in a plant and may be used to make rope and cloth. Ex. flax makes linen.
epidermis
Outermost layer of cells in plants, especially in leaves (cuticle on outside).
cuticle
A waxy protective coating on the surface of stems, leaves, and fruits to prevent water loss.
vascular cambium
A layer of cells located between the xylem and phloem in the woody stems of plants that produces new vascular tissues.
cork cambium
In woody plants, a layer of tissue that uses mitosis to make new cork cells.
cork
In woody plamts, the outermost protective layer of a plant's bark, dead cells produced by the cork cambium (provides strength and structure).
annual ring
A visible ring caused by yearly growth in a woody stem (light springwood and darker summerwood).
palisade layer
The layer of cells in a leaf where most photosynthesis occurs.
spongy layer
Loosely-packed chloroplast-bearing cells in the interior of leaves; surrounded by air space.
stoma
A small opening in the underside of the leaf that allows oxygen or water vapor to leave and carbon dioxide to enter (gas exchange).
guard cell
A modified epidermal cell that opens and closes a stoma.
transpiration
Evaporation of water from a plant through its leaves.
plant hormones
Chemical messengers that affect a plant's ability to respond to it's environment: uxin, gibberellins, abscisic acid, etc.
tropisms
A growth response of a plant toward or away from a stimulus (positive = toward stimulus; negative = away from stimulus).
phototropism
A plant's response to light.
thigmotropism
A plant's growth response to touch.
gravitropism
A plant's growth response to gravity.
nastic movement
A responsive movement of a plant that is not dependent on the direction of the stimulus; reversible, repeatable plant movements.
photoperiodism
A plant's response to seasonal changes in length of night and day.
short day plants
Plants that flower when a light period is shorter than a critical length (longer nights).
long-day plants
Plants that flower only when the light period is longer than a critical length (short nights).
day-neutral plants
Plants whose flowering cycle does not depend on periods of light and dark.