Psychology Chapters 13 and 14

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Test Reliability
the extent to which a test yields a consistent, reproducible measure of performance
Test Validity
the degree to which a test actually measures what it is supposed to measure
Standardization
defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group
Norms
rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members
Two Factor Theory of Intelligence
every task requires a combination of a general ability and skills that are specific to the task
Thurstone Theory of Intelligence
intelligence is a function of seven primary mental abilities - verbal comprehension, number facility, spatial relations, perceptual speed, word fluency, associative memory, and reasoning
Garder's Multiple Intelligence Theory
the theory of multiple intelligences differentiates human intelligence into specific 'modalities', rather than seeing intelligence as dominated by a single general ability.
Sternberg's Triarchic Theory
analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, practical intelligence
IQ Nature or Nurture
like most aspects of human behavior and cognition, intelligence is a complex trait that is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors
IQ Heritability
intelligence in the normal range is a polygenic trait, meaning that it is influenced by more than one gene, more specifically, over 500, and is thought to be 50% to 80% genetic in origin
IQ and Cultural Bias
IQ tests are either measuring knowledge more than the test creators think they do, or the tests are extremely culturally biased, but this bias is lessening due to assimilation of white and black culture in America
IQ and Gender Bias
bias arose from general differences between boys and girls in reading score distributions rather than from differences in IQ scores, gender bias poses a potential threat not only to traditional IQ-discrepancy definitions but also to post-discrepancy definitions that are based solely on reading score cutoffs
Aptitude Test
a test designed to predict a person's future performance
Achievement Test
a test designed to assess what a person has learned
Interest Inventory
an assessment of likes and dislikes
Objective Personality Test
a test containing direct, unambiguous items relating to the individual being assessed
MMPI
the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests
Myers-Briggs Test
a personality test that categorizes people into 16 personality types
Projective Personality Test
a test in which a person is shown an ambiguous stimulus and asked to describe it or tell a story about it
Rorschach Test
a projective test that uses inkblots as the ambiguous stimulus
Personality
an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
Personality Theorist
a psychologist who studies personality traits, dynamics, and theories
Freud's Theory
basic principles include the unconscious mind, early childhood experiences, and influence of sexual drives, includes id/ego/superego and psychosexual stages
Unconscious
a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories
Id
a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
Ego
the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain
SuperEgo
part of the personality that acts as a moral center
Defense Mechanisms
the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
Rationalization
creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior
Denial
refusing to believe or even perceive painful realities
Projection
disguising one's own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
Reaction Formula
expressing exaggerated ideas and emotions that are the opposite of disturbing, unconscious impulses and desires
Regression
return to an earlier or less advanced condition
Displacement
shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet
Sublimation
socially unacceptable impulses or idealizations are transformed into socially acceptable actions or behavior, possibly resulting in a long-term conversion of the initial impulse
Jung's Theory
messages from the unconscious, including the collective unconscious, produce dreams
Collective Unconscious
Jung's theory that we all share an inherited memory that contains our culture's most basic elements
Archetype
an original model on which something was patterned or replicated
Adler's Theory
each of us is born into the world with a sense of inferiority
Inferiority Complex
a pattern of avoiding feelings of inadequacy rather than trying to overcome their source
Behaviorism
the science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only
Well Known Behaviorists
John Watson, B. F. Skinner, Edwin Guthrie, Edward Tolman, Clark Hull, and Kenneth Spence
Contingencies of Reinforcement
the occurrence of rewards or punishments following particular behaviors
Albert Bandura
researcher famous for work in observational or social learning including the famous Bobo doll experiment
Maslow
humanist psychologist who developed a pyramid representing heirarchy of human needs
Humanistic Psychology
an approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings
Rodgers
among the founders of the humanistic approach to psychology
Self
assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions
Positive Regard
viewing oneself in a positive light due to positive feedback received from interaction with others
Conditions of Worth
the conditions a person must meet in order to regard himself or herself positively
Unconditional Positive Regard
an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
Socioculteral Approach
seeks to understand human behavior and personality development by examining the rules of the social groups and subgroups in which the individual is a member
Trait
specific characteristic of an individual
Allport's Trait Theory
cardinal, central, and secondary traits
Cattell's Theory
fluid and crystallized intelligence
Eysenck's Trait Theory
choleric, sanguine, phlegmatic, melancholic
Robust Five
extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience, emotional stability
Types of Reliability
test-retest, interrater, internal
Types of Validity
content, criterion, construct
Source Traits
factors underlying human personality and behavior