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Principles of Teaching and Learning 7-12
Terms in this set (49)
nature vs nuture
Genes and hereditary factors that influence who we are (physically and personality traits)
Environmental variables that impact who we are (childhood experiences, culture, how we were raised)
Focus on observable behaviors and discounts any independent activities of the mind
Based on environmental conditions and motivated by rewards and punishment
explains why the brain is the most incredible network of information processing and interpretation in body as we learn
Facilitate discovery by providing resources and guiding learners while they retain new info to old and old to new
construct knowledge for themselves. Each learner individually and socially constructs mean and he/she learns
Logical and conceptual growth
Produce knowledge and form meaning based on their experiences
Social learning theory- agrees with behaviorist learning theories and classical and operant conditioning
His social learning theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation and modeling.
First described by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist
Involves placing a neutral signal before a reflex
Focuses on involuntary, automatic behaviors
(bell and food experiment)
First described by B. F. Skinner, an American psychologist
Involves applying reinforcement or punishment after a behavior
Focuses on strengthening or weakening voluntary behaviors
(praise when dog fetches ball; no praise when he doesnt)
His theory said learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge. The learner selects and transforms information, constructs hypotheses, and makes decisions, relying on a cognitive structures
learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge.
Progressive education is essentially a view of education that emphasizes the need to learn by doing. Dewey believed that human beings learn through a 'hands-on' approach. This places Dewey in the educational philosophy of pragmatism.
His idea was that children came to school to do things and live in a community which gave them real, guided experiences which fostered their capacity to contribute to society.
believe that reality must be experienced.
He focused attention on the idea of "developmentally appropriate education"—an education where environments, curriculum, materials, and instruction are suitable for students in terms of their physical, cognitive, social, and emotional needs.
Sensorimotor: Birth-2 years
Preoperational: 2-7 years
Concrete operational: 7-11 years
Formal operational: 11 years on
Jean Piaget's theory. Through a series of stages, Piaget proposed four stages of cognitive development: the sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational period
first of the four stages in cognitive development which "extends from birth to the acquisition of language"
infants progressively construct knowledge and understanding of the world by coordinating experiences (such as vision and hearing) with physical interactions with objects (such as grasping, sucking, and stepping)
starts when the child begins to learn to speak at age two and lasts up until the age of seven
Piaget noted that children do not yet understand concrete logic and cannot mentally manipulate information. Children's increase in playing and pretending takes place in this stage
ages of 7 and 11 (preadolescence) years, and is characterized by the appropriate use of logic
They start solving problems in a more logical fashion. Abstract, hypothetical thinking is not yet developed in the child, and children can only solve problems that apply to concrete events or objects
Formal operational stage
(adolescence and into adulthood, roughly ages 11 to approximately 15-20): Intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts.
person is capable of hypothetical and deductive reasoning. During this time, people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts.
The hypothetico-deductive model
is a proposed description of scientific method.
emerges during the formal operational stage. Children tend to think very concretely and specifically in earlier stages, and begin to consider possible outcomes and consequences of action
the capacity for "thinking about thinking" that allows adolescents and adults to reason about their thought processes and monitor them is demonstrated when children use trial-and-error to solve problems. The ability to systematically solve a problem in a logical and methodical way emerges.
the capacity for "thinking about thinking" that allows adolescents and adults to reason about their thought processes and monitor them
is demonstrated when children use trial-and-error to solve problems. The ability to systematically solve a problem in a logical and methodical way emerges.
stress the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition, as he believed strongly that community plays a central role in the process of "making meaning."
Vygotsky's theory is one of the foundations of constructivism. It asserts three major themes regarding social interaction, the more knowledgeable other, and the zone of proximal development.
THE ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT (ZPD)
the distance between a student's ability to perform a task under adult guidance and/or with peer collaboration and the student's ability solving the problem independently.
THE MORE KNOWLEDGEABLE OTHER (MKO)
refers to anyone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner, with respect to a particular task, process, or concept
Social Interaction (Vgotsky)
"Every function in the child's cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological)
stages of moral development, a comprehensive stage theory of moral development based on Jean Piaget's theory of moral judgment for children (1932) and developed by Lawrence Kohlberg in 1958.
Stages of moral development
Cognitive in nature, this theory focuses on the thinking process that occurs when one decides whether a behaviour is right or wrong. Thus, the theoretical emphasis is on how one decides to respond to a moral dilemma, not what one decides or what one actually does.
SMD: Level 1: Preconventional level
At the preconventional level, morality is externally controlled. Rules imposed by authority figures are conformed to in order to avoid punishment or receive rewards.
SMD Level 2: Conventional level
At the conventional level, conformity to social rules remains important to the individual. However, the emphasis shifts from self-interest to relationships with other people and social systems
SMD Level 3: Postconventional or principled level
At the postconventional level, the individual moves beyond the perspective of his or her own society. Morality is defined in terms of abstract principles and values that apply to all situations and societies.
Bloom's model consists of six levels, with the three lower levels (knowledge, comprehension, and application) being more basic than the higher levels (analysis, synthesis, and evaluation)
The three domains of learning-Blooms Tax
The committee identified three domains of educational activities or learning
Cognitive: mental skills (knowledge)
Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (attitude or self)
Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (skills)
promote higher forms of thinking in education, such as analyzing and evaluating concepts, processes, procedures, and principles, rather than just remembering facts (rote learning). It is most often used when designing educational, training, and learning processes.
thinking about one's thinking. More precisely, it refers to the processes used to plan, monitor, and assess one's understanding and performance. Metacognition includes a critical awareness of a) one's thinking and learning and b) oneself as a thinker and learner.
abstract concept proposed by J. Piaget to refer to our, well, abstract concepts. They are units of understanding that can be hierarchically categorized as well as webbed into complex relationships with one another.
think of a house. You probably get an immediate mental image of something out of a kid's storybook: four windows, front door, suburban setting, chimney. However, if I were to amend the object's name slightly, your scheme would shift to a more refined version. How about: Shotgun house? One door, maybe no front windows, low income setting. Mansion? Multiple windows, side entrance for the help, sweeping front drive.
Transfer of learning is usually described as the process and the effective extent to which past experiences (also referred to as the transfer source) affect learning and performance in a new situation (the transfer target).
One's belief in the likelihood of goal completion can be motivating in itself
a cyclical process, wherein the student plans for a task, monitors their performance, and then reflects on the outcome. The cycle then repeats as the student uses the reflection to adjust and prepare for the next task
Stages of cognitive, physical and moral development
Refers mostly to the ability to form attachments, play with others, cooperate, share, and create lasting relationships
Development of fine (small) and gross (large) motor skills
Learning to make sense of the physical world
Development of talents in areas such as music, art, writing, and reading
Development of self-awareness, self-confidence, and the ability to cope with and understand feelings
Typical and Atypical Variance in Human Development
Atypical cognitive growth will tend to arise from a developmental delay. Some of the most common causes of these delays are brain injury, abuse and neglect, and gene or chromosomal abnormalities.
Atypical cognitive growth will typically include a deficit in problem solving skills and a delay in concepts such as object permanence and recognition of object functions. Atypical cognitive development also includes a deficit in the ability to acquire new skills. Oftentimes, children experiencing atypical cognitive growth will play and interact with children who are chronologically younger.
Normal individual differences in motor ability are common and depend in part on the child's weight and build. However, after the infant period, normal individual differences are strongly affected by opportunities to practice, observe, and be instructed on specific movements. Atypical motor development may be an indication of developmental delays or problems such as autism or cerebral palsy.
Individual differences in the sequence of social-emotional development are unusual, but the intensity or expressiveness of emotions can vary greatly from one normal child to another. Individual tendencies to various types of reactivity are probably constitutional, and they are referred to as temperamental differences. Atypical development of social-emotional characteristics may be mildly unusual, or may be so extreme as to indicate mental illness. Temperamental traits are thought to be stable and enduring throughout the life span. Children who are active and angry as infants can be expected to be active and angry as older children, adolescents and adults.
Some clear signs of speech and language delay include:
Not talking at three years of age;
Speaking in only one word phrases at five years of age;
Not speaking clearly (e.g., having severe speech difficulties at seven years of age).
Other signs of speech and language delay are less clear or obvious.
Some indicators that appear during the preschool years:
Having temper tantrums very often (maybe because the child cannot use words to get their point across);
Not following directions and appearing non-compliant (maybe the child does not understand what is being asked of him/her);
Being overly frustrated (maybe the child cannot get his/her point across);
Often using baby words (These are only "cute" once in a while!).
What do these behaviours mean?
A child who does not follow directions may be seen as non-compliant when in fact they have receptive language delays that prevent them from understanding what others are saying.
A child who is not yet talking may be doing so because they cannot hear, and not because they have a language-based delay.
Children look as if they are less responsive and they do not hold their attention for even a few minutes;
Many of them may be slow to learn new words, or have difficulty with their speech (unclear or changing sounds, e.g. "w" instead of "l").
Children with hearing loss already in kindergarten and primary school grades find it hard to learn to read and write as they cannot blend sounds together.
Variables that affect how a student learns and performs
Prior Knowledge and Experience
Students as diverse learners
Diverse student learners include students from racially, ethnically, culturally, and linguistically diverse families and communities of lower socioeconomic status. If educators act on the knowledge research offers, we can realize the educational excellence we desire for all children.
Visual and Perceptual Difficulties
Visual and hearing disorders: Those whose senses remain impaired (no function normal) after treatment and correction (eyeglasses, hearing aids) are termed visually or hearing handicapped.
Visually impaired: blind or low vision- must learn through other senses.
Hearing disorders: deaf or hard-of-hearing-difficulty in speech and language development.
Special Physical or Sensory Challenges
Related to physical skills such as hand use, trunk control, mobility.... individuals with medical conditions that affect strength and stamina (endurance).
Disabilities: physical states or conditions that result in impairment of functioning (loss of a leg)
Handicaps: disabilities become handicaps when they interfere with the individual's ability to function in specific situations.
Academic needs: special services may be provided by adapted physical education teachers or other motor specialists.
A disorder in the ability to process information that can result in attention, perception, or memory deficits; despite adequate hearing, vision, and intelligence, learning disabled students experience difficulty in school learning.
Academic needs: struggle with listening, reading, spelling, writing, etc.
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities in several areas, including employment, transportation, public accommodations, communications and access to state and local government' programs and services
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is a law that makes available a free appropriate public education to eligible children with disabilities throughout the nation and ensures special education and related services to those children.
The IDEA governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education, and related services to more than 6.5 million eligible infants, toddlers, children, and youth with disabilities.
Section 504 Rehabilitation Act
No otherwise qualified individual with a disability in the United States, as defined in section 705(20) of this title, shall, solely by reason of her or his disability, be excluded from the participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance or under any program or activity
1. Vocabulary and Language Development: Teachers introduce new concepts by discussing vocabulary words key to that concept. Exploring specific academic terms like algorithm starts a sequence of lessons on larger math concepts and builds the student's background knowledge.
2. Guided Interaction: Teachers structure lessons to enable students to work together to understand what they read—by listening, speaking, reading, and writing collaboratively about the academic concepts in the text. By working collaboratively, ELL students can work off of other students to help them comprehend and learn what is being asked of them.
3. Explicit Instruction: Utilize clear instruction or direct teaching of concepts, academic language, and reading comprehension strategies to complete classroom tasks. This will help students to understand what is being asked of them.
4. Real World Examples & Context-Based Learning: Implement students' interests and real-life examples to help them gain interest in the subject matter. Research shows that when students are interested in something and can connect it to their lives or cultural backgrounds, they are more highly motivated and learn at a better rate.
5. Graphic Organizers & Modeling: Visual learning is extremely helpful to all students, and especially ELL learners. It provides clues and visual cues to language context to help English Language Learners grasp concepts, thereby making the content more accessible to the students. You can implement a variety of visual aids, such as graphic organizers, pictures, diagrams, and charts.
6. Authentic Assessment: Teachers model and explicitly teach thinking skills (metacognition) crucial to learning new concepts. With authentic assessments, teachers use a variety of activities to check students' understanding, acknowledging that students learning a second language need a variety of ways to demonstrate their knowledge of concepts that are not wholly reliant on advanced communication skills.
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