Only $2.99/month

Terms in this set (49)

COGNITIVE ABILITY:
Atypical cognitive growth will tend to arise from a developmental delay. Some of the most common causes of these delays are brain injury, abuse and neglect, and gene or chromosomal abnormalities.
Atypical cognitive growth will typically include a deficit in problem solving skills and a delay in concepts such as object permanence and recognition of object functions. Atypical cognitive development also includes a deficit in the ability to acquire new skills. Oftentimes, children experiencing atypical cognitive growth will play and interact with children who are chronologically younger.

MOTOR ABILITY:
Normal individual differences in motor ability are common and depend in part on the child's weight and build. However, after the infant period, normal individual differences are strongly affected by opportunities to practice, observe, and be instructed on specific movements. Atypical motor development may be an indication of developmental delays or problems such as autism or cerebral palsy.

SOCIO-EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT:
Individual differences in the sequence of social-emotional development are unusual,[citation needed] but the intensity or expressiveness of emotions can vary greatly from one normal child to another.[citation needed] Individual tendencies to various types of reactivity are probably constitutional, and they are referred to as temperamental differences. Atypical development of social-emotional characteristics may be mildly unusual, or may be so extreme as to indicate mental illness. Temperamental traits are thought to be stable and enduring throughout the life span. Children who are active and angry as infants can be expected to be active and angry as older children, adolescents and adults.

COMMUNICATION:
Some clear signs of speech and language delay include:

Not talking at three years of age;
Speaking in only one word phrases at five years of age;
Not speaking clearly (e.g., having severe speech difficulties at seven years of age).

Other signs of speech and language delay are less clear or obvious.

Some indicators that appear during the preschool years:

Having temper tantrums very often (maybe because the child cannot use words to get their point across);

Not following directions and appearing non-compliant (maybe the child does not understand what is being asked of him/her);
Being overly frustrated (maybe the child cannot get his/her point across);
Often using baby words (These are only "cute" once in a while!).

What do these behaviours mean?

A child who does not follow directions may be seen as non-compliant when in fact they have receptive language delays that prevent them from understanding what others are saying.

A child who is not yet talking may be doing so because they cannot hear, and not because they have a language-based delay.
Children look as if they are less responsive and they do not hold their attention for even a few minutes;
Many of them may be slow to learn new words, or have difficulty with their speech (unclear or changing sounds, e.g. "w" instead of "l").
Children with hearing loss already in kindergarten and primary school grades find it hard to learn to read and write as they cannot blend sounds together.
1. Vocabulary and Language Development: Teachers introduce new concepts by discussing vocabulary words key to that concept. Exploring specific academic terms like algorithm starts a sequence of lessons on larger math concepts and builds the student's background knowledge.

2. Guided Interaction: Teachers structure lessons to enable students to work together to understand what they read—by listening, speaking, reading, and writing collaboratively about the academic concepts in the text. By working collaboratively, ELL students can work off of other students to help them comprehend and learn what is being asked of them.

3. Explicit Instruction: Utilize clear instruction or direct teaching of concepts, academic language, and reading comprehension strategies to complete classroom tasks. This will help students to understand what is being asked of them.

4. Real World Examples & Context-Based Learning: Implement students' interests and real-life examples to help them gain interest in the subject matter. Research shows that when students are interested in something and can connect it to their lives or cultural backgrounds, they are more highly motivated and learn at a better rate.

5. Graphic Organizers & Modeling: Visual learning is extremely helpful to all students, and especially ELL learners. It provides clues and visual cues to language context to help English Language Learners grasp concepts, thereby making the content more accessible to the students. You can implement a variety of visual aids, such as graphic organizers, pictures, diagrams, and charts.

6. Authentic Assessment: Teachers model and explicitly teach thinking skills (metacognition) crucial to learning new concepts. With authentic assessments, teachers use a variety of activities to check students' understanding, acknowledging that students learning a second language need a variety of ways to demonstrate their knowledge of concepts that are not wholly reliant on advanced communication skills.