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Terms in this set (36)
The Greatest Happiness Principle
actions are right in proportion as they promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce unhappiness
Mill maintains that in the long run, the best proof of good character is
performing good actions
According to Mill, what is the function of secondary moral principles
to guide decision via intermediate generalizations
Mill claims that secondary moral principles
According to Mill, when should the first principles of morality be appealed in decision - making?
when secondary principles conflict
Kant claims that the only thing that can be good "without limitation" is
According to Kant, actions have moral worth only if
they are done from duty
How does Kant describe the prudent shopkeeper?
he acts in accordance with duty but not necessarily from duty
which does Kant think has more moral worth, grudgingly giving money to charity because it is the right thing to do or happily giving money to charity because it makes you happy to help others
grudgingly giving money
Kant's first formulation of the categorical imperative requires assessing the
maxim on which one is acting
What is maxim in Kant's terminology?
a principle upon which one bases one's action
Kant's second formulation of the categorical imperative requires that we
treat human beings as ends in themselves
According to Kant the consequences of an action
are irrelevant to the moral status of that action
Under the veil of ignorance, no one knows their
talents or natural abilities, their class or social status, or their intelligence or personality
Which of the following is true of the veil of ignorance, according the Rawls?
it protects against bias and partiality in the section of principles of justice
One of Rawls' principles of justice
requires equality in the assignment of the basic rights and duties
What is the name of the principle that says laws should give priority in the distribution of opportunity and resources to the worst off members of society
the difference principle
the maximin rule says we must rank alternatives by their outcomes and choose the alternative in which
the worst outcome is superior to the worst outcomes of the others
Nozick resists the term "distributive justice" because
it is not neutral
The entitlement theory includes
justice in transfer of holdings
A historical principle holds
the justice of distribution depends on what has actually happened
Nozick's theory includes consideration of the rectification of injustice in holdings becasue some people
steal from others, defraud others and forcibly exclude others from competitive exchange
Nozick's Wilt Chamberlin example demonstrates
the ease with which liberty upsets patterns
Frankfurt argues that we should adopt the doctrine of
According to the doctrine of sufficiency, it is not morally important that everyone has ______ , but instead what matters is that everyone has _____ .
the same amount of money; enough money
Frankfurt argues that a concern for ______ tends to divert a persons' attention away from discovering what they really care about and what will really satisfy them
What does Frankfurt say in response to the argument that securing equality of wealth is the best way to maximize aggregate utility?
this statement is false. In some cases, securing equality of wealth clearly minimizes utility
What does Frankfurt say in response to the argument that it just seems intuitively wrong from some people to be much worse off than others?
what really is intuitively wrong is that some people are so poor, not the discrepancy itself.
When do we have enough, according to Frankfurt?
when it is reasonable for us to be content
What does Frankfurt think is true of people who have enough wealth?
more money will not make them significantly less unhappy
Anderson argues that Locke
didn't oppose certain forms of taxation
Which common interpretation of Locke does Anderson object to?
Individuals, upon joining a minimal state, retain full claim to all of their natural property rights
free market prices do not and could not track claims of individual moral desert.
Anderson argues, with reference to Hayek, that orienting the economy around the goal of people receiving the income they normal deserve would lead to
poverty and abolition of capitalism
What does Anderson identify as the goal of her proposal?
to avoid gratuitous suffering and to ensure that everyone has effective access to the means needed for a decent life
Anderson ultimately argues that the need for ______ in a volatile economy justifies some redistributive taxation.
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