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Anatomy Exam 2: Thorax
Terms in this set (100)
The surface anatomy of the thorax can by determined by the following landmarks:
clavicle to the costal margin
This bony structure is on the anterior chest and serves as an articulating point for the ribs
What are the parts of the sternum?
manubrium, angle, body, xiphoid process
Where is the most common place for sternal fx?
Which of the following ribs is considered atypical?
Which ribs are atypical?
1, 2, 10, 11, 12
What are the floating ribs, meaning there is no attachment to the sternum?
What ribs are considered false ribs, meaning they share a common costal cartilage with the rib above?
What ribs only has a single facet on the head, contains grooves for the subclavian, and has a scalene tubercle?
What rib has a large body and contains a tuberosity for the serratus anterior muscle?
List the typical features of a rib.
-head with superior and inferior articular facets
-superior facet articulates with inferior costal facet of the vertebrae above
-inferior articular facet articulates with the inferior costal facet of the vertebrae with the same number
How many articulation points do ribs 10, 11, and 12 have on the head?
What structures run along the costal groove on the inferior portion of a typical rib?
VAN (intercostal vein, artery, and nerve)
Radiate Sternocostal Ligament
fibrous bands that radiate out from the sternum to circle around the costal cartilage of the rib
The sternal angle is the articulation point for the 2nd rib. What vertebrae is at the level of the sternal angle?
The xiphisternal joint is at the level of the 5th rib, but what rib articulates here?
The xiphoid process is at the level of which vertebrae?
Which ligament attaches the transverse process of a vertebrae to the rib of the same number?
Lateral costotransverse ligament
What ligament holds the rib in place by attaching it to the transverse process of the vertebrae above?
superior costotransverse ligament
This ligament radiates from the rib to the vertebral body:
radiate ligament of head of rib (radiate ligament)
What are the features of a typical thoracic vertebrae?
-long spinous process
-posteriorly deviated transverse process
How many costal facets does a thoracic vertebrae contain?
How many articular facets does a thoracic vertebrae contain?
What ribs move outward in a bucket handle motion on inspiration?
What ribs move outward in a pump-handle motion on inspiration?
Where does the external intercostal muscle transition to a membrane?
Where does the internal intercostal muscle transition to a membrane?
The external intercostals run in which direction?
superior lateral to inferior medial
The internal intercostals run in which direction?
superior medial to inferior lateral
What muscle runs from the nuchal ligament and spinous processes of C7-T3 to the superior boarders of the 2nd-4th ribs?
Serratus Posterior Superior
What nerve innervates serratus posterior superior?
2nd to 5th intercostal nerve
What is the main action of serratus posterior superior?
proprioception (elevates ribs)
Where are the attachments of serratus posterior inferior?
the spinous process of T11-L2 vertebrae to inferior boarders of 8-12th ribs, near their angles
What nerves innervate serratus posterior inferior?
anterior rami to T9-T12 thoracic spinal nerves
What is the main action of the serratus posterior inferior?
proprioception (depresses ribs)
What muscle attaches at the transverse processes of T7-T11 and at the subjacent ribs between the tubercle and the angle?
Levator Costalis (Costarum)
What nerves innervate the levator costalis muscle?
posterior primary rami of C8-T11 nerves
What is the main action of the levator costalis muscle?
What muscles attach at the inferior boarder of the ribs and at the superior boarder of the ribs below?
What muscles are innervated by the intercostal nerve?
What is the main action of the external intercostal muscles?
elevate ribs during forced inspiration
What is the main action of the internal intercostal muscles and innermost intercostal muscles?
interosseous part depresses ribs during active inspiration and the interchondral part elevates ribs during active inspiration
What muscle attaches at the internal surface of lower ribs near their angles and at the superior boarder of 2nd or 3 ribs below?
What is the main action of the subcostal muscle?
"Probably act in the same manner as internal intercostal muscles" (depresses and elevates the ribs)
What muscle attaches at the posterior surface of lower sternum and the internal surfaces of costal cartilages 2-5?
What is the main action of the transverse thoracis muscles?
Weakly depresses ribs. Proprioception?
What is the diaphragm?
the muscle responsible for pressure changes within the thoracic cavity during inspiration and expiration that also makes up the floor of the thoracic cavity
What nerves innervate the diaphragm?
C3,4,5 (phrenic nerve)
What are the 3 hiatuses in the diaphragm and their vertebral level?
What layers make up the boarders of the intercostal space?
internal intercostal and innermost intercostal
What structures sit within the intercostal space?
Neurovascular Bundle: intercostal artery, nerve, and vein
What is the parent artery for the posterior intercostal arteries?
What structure do the right intercostal arteries have to pass over before entering into the intercostal space?
What is the parent artery for the anterior intercostal arteries?
internal thoracic artery
What arteries allow for countercurrent or retrograde blood flow during coarctation of the aorta?
Where do the first 2 posterior intercostal arteries arise from?
supreme intercostal arteries in the neck
What is the name of the suspensory ligaments of the breast?
What is the space in the pleural cavity between the ribs, lungs, and diaphragm at the lowest portions of the pleural cavity?
At what intercostal space would a thoracocentesis be preformed?
9th intercostal space at the costodiaphragmatic recess
What is the term describing air in the pleural cavity?
What is the term pertaining to fluid in the pleural cavity?
What is the term pertaining to blood in the pleural cavity?
What is the term for the painful rubbing of inflamed pleura?
Why is aspiration more likely to occur in the right middle and lower lobes?
Right main-stem bronchus is shorter and more steeply angled
What degree is the lingual bronchi that supplies the lingula of the left lung?
What lobe of the lung is the lingual lobe located on?
Left Superior Lobe
What structures are located in the right hilum of the lung?
-pulmonary artery (4)
-pulmonary vein (2)
What are the impressions of the hilum of the right lung?
esophagus, trachea, azygos vein (arch), inferior vena cava, brachiocephalic vein, superior vena cava
What are the structures located in the hilum of the left lung?
-left main bronchus
What are the impressions on the hilum of the left lung?
trachea, esophagus, subclavian artery, brachiocephalic vein, thymus and fatty anterior mediastinum, arch of aorta
Where does gas exchange occur in the lungs?
What are the 2 types of alveoli and their functions?
Type 1: gas exchange
Type 2: produce surfactant to reduce surface tension
Where is the lymph drainage for the right lung?
Where does lymph drainage for the left lung go?
What is the parent artery for the right bronchial artery?
posterior intercostal artery
What is the parent artery for the left bronchial artery?
What vein does the right bronchial vein drain into?
Azygos vein, just inferior to the arch
What vein does the left bronchial vein drain into?
accessory hemiazygos vein
What nerve supplies the pericardium with sensory information?
Phrenic Nerve, running anteriorly to the hilum of the lung
What are other terms use to describe the visceral pericardium?
serous pericardium and epicardium
What lines the inner chambers of the heart?
What artery and vein run alongside the phrenic nerve in the mediastinum?
pericardiacophrenic artery and vein
What is the purpose of a pericardiocentesis?
removal of excess fluid in the pericardium to prevent cardiac tamponade, which compresses the heart and prevents it from beating
Where is a pericardiocentesis preformed?
inferior to the body of the sternum and left of the xiphoid process
What pathology can occur due to pooling of blood in the left auricle during atrial fibrillation?
What is different about the makeup of the right atria and the right ventricle?
RA is more venous in origin and the RV is more muscular in origin
Which ventricle is predominantly shown in an anterior view of the heart?
When referring to vessels supplying the heart, the term coronary refers to:
When referring to vessels supplying the heart, the term cardiac refers to:
What does the right coronary artery supply?
right atrium and right ventricle, as well as the SA node and AV node
What does the right marginal branch of RCA supply?
supplies the inferior boarder of the right atrium
The anterior atrioventricular branch of the left coronary artery is also known as what?
Why is coarctation of the atrioventricular branch of the LCA so detrimental?
It supplies 2/3 of the inter-ventricular septum
What cardiac vein drains directly into the right atrium?
Anterior Cardiac Vein
What vein runs along the circumflex artery and drains into the right atrium via the coronary sinus?
Great cardiac vein
What is the only place in the left atrium with pectinate muscle?
What valves of the heart contain no muscles or tendons to keep them closed?
What structure serves as a support for the valves of the heart and also acts as an insulator separating the atria and ventricles?
What is the order of the cardiac conduction system?
SA node-->AV node-->Bundle of His-->L and R Bundle brances-->Perkinje fibers
What structure is found in the right ventricle and attaches the anterior papillary muscle to the ventricular septum, coordinating contraction of the anterior papillary muscle and the ventricular walls?
Septomarginal Trebecula (moderator band)
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