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191 terms

Medical Terminology Study Guide

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midsagittal (median)
right and left halves
coronal (frontal)
Anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) aspects
Transverse (horizontal)
Superior (upper) and inferior (lower) aspects
What is in the cranial cavity which is located in the dorsal?
brain
What is located in the spinal cavity which is located in the dorsal?
spinal cord
What is located in the thoracic cavity which is located in the ventral part?
heart, lungs, and associated structures
What is located in the abdominopelvic cavity which is located in the ventral part?
Digestive, excretory, and reproductive organs and structures
What is located in the Right Upper Quadrant?
Right lobe of liver, gallbladder, part of pancreas, part of small and large intestines, liver
What is located in the Left Upper Quadrant?
Left lobe of liver, stomach, spleen, part of pancreas, part of small and large intestines
What is located in the Right Lower Quadrant?
Part of small and large intestines, appendix, right ovary, right fallopian tube, right ureter
What is located in the Left Lower Quadrant?
Part of small and large intestines, left ovary, left fallopian tube, left ureter
Abduction
movement away from the midsagittal (median) plane of the body or one of its parts
adduction
movement toward the midsagittal plane of the body
medial
pertaining to the midline of the body or structure
lateral
pertaining to one side
superior
toward the head or upper portion of a structure
inferior
away from the head, or twoard the tail or lower part of a structure
proximal
nearer to the center (trunk of the body) or to the point of attachent to the body
distal
further from the center (trunk of the body) or to the point of attachment to the body
anterior (ventral)
front of the body
posterior (dorsal)
back of the body
parietal
pertaining to the outer wall of the body cavity
visceral
pertaining to the viscera, or internal organs, especially the abdominal organs
prone
lying on the abdomen, face down
supine
lying horizontally on the back, face up
inversion
turning inward or inside out
eversion
turning outward
palmar
pertaining to the palm of the hand
plantar
pertaining to the sole of the foot
superficial
toward the surface of the body (external)
deep
away from the surface of the body (internal)
sign
objective indicators that are observable
a palpable mass and tissue redness are examples of ________
signs
symptom
subjective and is experienced only by the patient
dizziness, pain, and malaise are examples of _______
symptoms
Layers of the skin:
epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous layer
onych/o, Ungu/o
nail
onych/o/malacia
softening of the nail
ungu/al
pertaining to the nails
ecchymosis
bruise
erythema
redness of the skin
eschar
damaged tissue following a severe burn
pallor
unnatural paleness or absence of color in the skin
xeroderma
chronic skin condition characterized by dryness and roughness and is a mild form of ichthyosis
adip/o, lip/o, steat/o
fat
adip/osis
abnormal condition of fat
lip/o/cele
hernia containing fat
steat/itis
inflammation of fatty tissue
first degree burn
least serious type, injure only the epidermis. May or may not have blisters.
second degree burn
deep burns that damage both the epidermis and part of the dermis. Blisters.
third degree burn
epidermis and dermis are destroyed and some of the underying connective tissue is damaged, leaving the skin waxy and charred with insensitivity to touch
Cheil/o/plasty
Surgical repair of the lips
Labi/o/plasty
Surgical repair of the lips
gingiv/o/plasty
surgical repair of the gums
cheil/ectomy
excision of lip tissue
labi/ectomy
excision of lip tissue
gingivectomy
excision of gum tissue
gastr/o/dynia
pain in the stomach
gastr/algia
pain in the stomach
stomatitis
inflammation of the mouth
oritis
inflammation of the mouth
cholecyst/o
gallbladder
cholecyst/ectomy
excision of the gallbladder
cholecyst/o/tomy
incision of the gallbladder
cholecyst/o/pathy
any disease of the gallbladder
inguinal hernia
develops in the groin where the abdominal folds of flesh meet the thighs
strangulated hernia
occurs when the blood supply to the hernia is cut off because of pressure. This will lead to necrosis when gangrene
umbilical hernia
protrusion of part of the intestine at the navel. It occurs more commonly in obese women and among those who have had several pregnancies
hiatal hernia
lower part of the esophagus and the top of the stomach slides through an opening in the diaphragm into the thorax
sept/o/plasty
surgical repair of the septum
rhin/o/plasty
surgical repair of the nose
peri/tonsill/ar
pertaining to the area surrounding the tonsils
atelectasis
partial or complete collapse of the lung
hemoptysis
spits up blood
dyspnea
difficulty breathing
eupnea
normal breathing
bradypnea
slow breathing
tachypnea
fast breathing
orthopnea
difficulty breathing unless standing or sitting
aort/o
aorta
aort/o/stenosis
narrowing of the aorta
arteri/o
artery
arteri/o/rrhexis
rupture of an artery
angi/o
vessel
angi/o/plasty
surgical repair of a vessel
vascul/o
vessel
vascul/itis
inflammation of (blood) vessels
hemangi/o
blood vessel
hemangi/oma
tumor of blood vessels
arteries carry blood
from the heart
veins carry blood
to the heart
arteries have ________ blood
oxygenated
veins have ________ blood
deoxygenated
hypertension
high blood pressure, above 140/90
hypotension
low blood pressure, below 120/80
normal blood pressure
120/80
systolic pressure
the 120 in 120/80
diastolic pressure
the 80 in 120/80
electr/o/cardi/o/gram
the record of the electrical activity of the heart
electr/o/cardi/o/graph
the machine that records the electrical activity of the heart
electr/o/cardi/o/graphy
the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart
wrist bones
carpals
palm bones
metacarpals
fingers, toe bones
phalanges
ankle bones
tarsals
between the ankles and toe bones
metatarsals
dactyl/o
fingers and toes
myel/o
spinal cord; bone marrow
ankylosis
stiffening and immobility of a joint as a result of disease, trauma, surgery, or abnormal bone fusion
crepitation
dry, grating sound or sensation caused by bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture or joint destruction
subluxation
partial or incomplete dislocation
claudication
lameness, limping
adduction
moves closer to the midline
abduction
moves away from the midline
flexion
decreases the angle of a joint
extension
increases the angle of a joint
rotation
moves a bone around its own axis
pronation
turns the palm down
supination
turns the palm up
inversion
moves the sole of the foot inward
eversion
moves the sole of the foot outward
dorsiflexion
elevates the foot
plantar flexion
lowers the foot (points the toes)
oste/o
bone
arthr/o
joint
anuria
absence of urine
bacteriuria
presence of bacteria in the urine
dysuria
painful or difficulty urinating
enuresis
involuntary discharge of urine- incontinence
frequency
need to urinate frequently
hematuria
blood in the urine
hesitancy
difficulty starting to urinate
nocturia
urinating excessively at night
oliguria
diminished amount of urine
polyuria
excessive urine
cystolithiasis
bladder stones
nephrolithiasis
kidney stones
renolithiasis
kidney stones
cholecystolithiasis
stones in the gallbladder
lithiasis
abnormal condition of stones or caliculi
anorchidism
absence of one or both testes
nephropexy
procedure to correct a floating or dropped kidney
aspermia
failure to form or ejaculate sperm
KUB
kidneys, ureter, and bladder radiography, radiographic examination to determine the location, size, and shape of the kidneys in relationship to other organs in the abdominopelvic caity and identify abnormalities of the urinary system
hydrocele
term associated with the collection of fluid in the testes
primigravida
woman pregnant for the first time
multigravida
woman who has been pregnant more than once
primipara
woman who has given birth to one viable infant
multipara
woman who has delivered more than one viable infant
G3 P2
has been pregnant 3 times and delivered 2 babies
hyster/ectomy
surgical removal of the uterus
salping/ectomy
surgical removal of the fallopian tube
oophor/ectomy
surgical removal of an ovary
ovari/ectomy
surgical removal of an ovary
episi/o/tomy
incision made to enlarge the birth canal
metrorrhagia
bleeding between menstrual periods
menorrhagia
profuse or prolonged bleeding during menstrual periods
menarche
initial menstrual period
oligomenorrhea
scanty menstrual flow
amenorrhea
no menstrual flow
dysmenorrhea
painful menstrual flow
cerebr/o/tomy
incision of the cerebrum
crani/o/malacia
softening of the cranium
encephal/o/cele
herniation of the brain
brady/kines/ia
condition of slow movement
tachy/kines/ia
excessive movement; also called hyperactivity
meningi/o, mening/o
meninges (membranes covering brain and spinal cord)
hemiplegia
paralysis of one side of the body, typically as the result of a stroke; also called unilateral paralysis
paraplegia
paralysis of both lower limgs, typicall as a result of trauma or disease of the lower spinal cord
quadriplegia
paralysis of both arms and legs, typically as a result of trauma or disease of the upper spinal cord
unilateral
one side
bilateral
both sides
contralateral
opposite sides
for "ae" and "oe"
only the second vowel is pronounced
the soft sounds of "s" and "j", respectively are given to "c" and "g"
before e,i, and y in words of Greek or Latin origin... Before any other letters "c" and "g" have a hard sound
the letters "ch"
are sometimes pronounced like "k"
when "pn" appears int he middle of a word
"p" and "n" are both prounounced
when "ps" appears at the beginning of a word
"p" is silent and only "s" is pronounced
when forming the final letters of a word "e" and "es" are
commonly pronounced as separate syllables
when "i" appears at the end of a word
it is pronounced eye
plural of pleura
pleurae
plural of thorax
thoraces
plural of lumen
lumina
plural of diagnosis
diagnoses
plural of appendix
appendices
plural of apex
apices
plural of carcinoma
carcinomata
plural of ganglion
ganglia
plural of bacterium
bacteria
plural of bronchus
bronchi
plural of deformity
deformities