Short Story Elements

the central message of a story, poem, novel, or play that readers can apply to life
the central character in a story, drama, or poem
Flat Character
character who reveals only one personality trait
Round Character
a character who shows varied traits
a character who is not developed as an individual but as a collection of traits and mannerisms supposedly shared by all members of a group
character FOIL
character who contrasts with another character (usually protagonist) to highlight main character
Direct Characterization
writer makes direct statements about character
Indirect Characteriztion
writer explains character's personality through character's words`
introduces characters, setting, and conflict
Rising Action
adds complication, builds suspense, develops characters
the turning point of the story
Falling Action
events after the climax, leading to the resolution
the use of hints and clues to suggest what will happen later in a plot
a reflection of the writer or speaker's attitude toward the subject
Omniscient Third Person POV
the narrator is outside the story and knows everything about the characters and events
writing that exposes and ridicules the vices or follies of people or societies
Dramatic Irony
the audience has imporant info that characters in a literary work don't have.
Situation Irony
the actual outcome of a situation is the opposite of someone's expectation
Verbal Irony
a person says one thing and means another
the struggle between opposing forces in a story or play
an account of an event that happened before a story began
inspires character to behave in a manner
a character that opposes the protagonist and receives little or no sympathy from the reader