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the central message of a story, poem, novel, or play that readers can apply to life


the central character in a story, drama, or poem

Flat Character

character who reveals only one personality trait

Round Character

a character who shows varied traits


a character who is not developed as an individual but as a collection of traits and mannerisms supposedly shared by all members of a group

character FOIL

character who contrasts with another character (usually protagonist) to highlight main character

Direct Characterization

writer makes direct statements about character

Indirect Characteriztion

writer explains character's personality through character's words`


introduces characters, setting, and conflict

Rising Action

adds complication, builds suspense, develops characters


the turning point of the story

Falling Action

events after the climax, leading to the resolution


the use of hints and clues to suggest what will happen later in a plot


a reflection of the writer or speaker's attitude toward the subject

Omniscient Third Person POV

the narrator is outside the story and knows everything about the characters and events


writing that exposes and ridicules the vices or follies of people or societies

Dramatic Irony

the audience has imporant info that characters in a literary work don't have.

Situation Irony

the actual outcome of a situation is the opposite of someone's expectation

Verbal Irony

a person says one thing and means another


the struggle between opposing forces in a story or play


an account of an event that happened before a story began


inspires character to behave in a manner


a character that opposes the protagonist and receives little or no sympathy from the reader

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