Upgrade to remove ads
Vector Borne Illnesses Part 1 C
Terms in this set (91)
What are the causative pathogens for Ehrilchiosis?
any bacterial name that have the genus Ehrlichia
What other source can someone get infected with Ehrilchia from?
blood transfusions (WBC)
What is the primary vector for Ehrlichiosis?
lone star tick
Where is Ehrlichiosis prevalent?
TN and surrounding states and Wisconsin
What are some key symptoms of Ehrlichiosis?
Fever and rash are very common (60% of childen and 30% of adults present with a rash)
How long after exposure does someone develop sx of Ehrlichiosis?
What is the TOC for Ehrilchiosis?
Doxycycline 100mg q12 for
(cont. at least 3 days after fever subsides)
What is the causative pathogen for RMSF?
What are the vectors for RMSF?
American Dog tick, Rocky Mntn wood tick, Brown Dog tick
Where is RMSF prevalent?
TN, SC, NC, AR, & OK
What are key symptoms in RMSF?
fever, HA, vomiting, muscle pain, rash
What are key characteristics of the RMSF rash?
it presents 2-4 days after fever onset, centripetal spread, palms of hands/soles of feet are where it starts, 20% have no rash or atypical rash, and when they develop petechia, the outcomes are not looking good
What are the severe complications that can be associated with RMSF?
vasculitis (invades endothelial cells), neurological deficits, pulmonary damage, end-organ damage
What do the outcomes for RMSF look like?
20% of untreated cases and 5% of treated cases don't make it
What is the TOC for RMSF?
What are some alternative treatment options for RMSF?
chloramphenicol (decreased efficacy?); ceftriaxone + doxy (meningococcal disease)
What treatment would worsen outcomes in RMSF?
What is the causative pathogen of Tularemia?
What are the vectors for Tularemia?
Lone Star tick, American Dog tick, Rocky Mntn wood tick, Deer flies
What does the epidemiology look like for Tularemia?
most cases have been reported in AR, MO, KS, & OK but there have been cases in TN as well
What are the symptoms for Tularemia like?
all forms involve fever and are dependent upon how bacteria enter the body
What are the different forms of symptoms for Tularemia?
Ulceroglandular (most common), Glandular, Oculoglandular, Oropharyngeal, & Pneumonic which is the most serious form
What is the TOC for Tularemia?
streptomycin 1 gm IM q12h
for 10 days
--> switch to PO when clinically indicated
What are second-line options for Tularemia if streptomycin cannot be tolerated?
Gent for 10 days, Doxy for 14 days, Chloramphenicol for 14-21 days, or Cipro for 10 days
Is there a vaccine for Tularemia?
yes; live attenuated vaccine developed for researchers who work with bacterium
Can someone receive PEP for Tularemia?
yes; 14 days of tx may help prevent symptoms atfter exposure and is included in emergency preparedness books
What is the causative agent for Babesiosis?
Babesia microti; parasite invades and replicates in host's erythrocytes
What is the vector for Babesiosis?
What are other means of transmission for Babesiosis?
blood transfusions or vertical transmission
What does the epidemiology look like for Babesiosis?
it is prevalent in WI, MI, MN, & the New England states
What are the symptoms of Babesiosis like?
wide spread spectrum; can be asymptomatic, non-specific, flu-like symptoms or be severe (splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, jaundice, thrombocytopenia, DIC, EOD)
What are some other possible findings in Babesiosis?
proteinuria, hemoglobinuria, elevated LFTs, & elevated BUN/SCr
How long after exposure do symptoms appear for Babesiosis?
weeks to months (this one takes the longest for sx to appear)
Symptoms of Babesiosis can resurface many months later especially in _______ ________.
How do we diagnose Babesiosis?
visualization of parasite within host erythrocytes; ring formation can be confused with malaria; tetrad formation is unique to babesiosis
What is the TOC for Babesiosis?
Atovaquone 750 mg PO q12h
Azithromycin 500-1000 mg PO x 1 day then 250-1000 mg PO per day
--> tx is reserved for symptomatic pts
What is the TOC for severely ill pts with Babesiosis?
Clindamycin 600 mg PO q8h or 300-600 mg IV q6h
Quinine 650 mg PO q8h
What is the duration of treatment for Babesiosis?
What is the causative pathogen for Lyme Disease?
What are the vectors for Lyme Disease?
Blacklegged tick & Western blacklegged tick
Where was Lyme Disease first seen in the US?
Lyme, CT in the 1970's
What are the symptoms of Early Lyme Disease?
erythema migrans; develops 7-14 days (range of 3-30 days) after tick detachment
What are the symptoms for Late Lyme Disease?
What are other, more severe manifestations of Lyme Disease?
neurologic (cranial nerve palsy, meningitis) & cardiac (AV heart block & myopericarditis)
What are the first line treatment options for Early Lyme Disease?
Doxy (10-21 days), Amoxicillin or Cefuroxime (14-21 days)
What are second line treatment options for Early Lyme Disease?
Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, or Erythromycin
What are the first line treatment options for Lyme Meningitis and early neurologic Lyme Disease?
Ceftriaxone 2g IV q24h, Cefotaxime 2g IV q8h (both for 14 days), or Pen G 18-24 MU in 6 divided doses
What is the second line treatment option for Lyme Meningitis and early neurologic Lyme Disease?
Doxy 100-200 mg q12h x 10-28 days
What is the treatment difference for cardiac complications of early Lyme Disease?
PO or IV therapy x 14 days (up to 21 days)
What are the treatment options for Late Lyme Disease without neurologic symptoms?
, amoxicillin, or cefuroxime PO
x 28 days
What are the treatment options for Late Lyme Disease with neurologic symptoms?
Ceftriaxone x 2-4 weeks
What are the causative pathogens for Rabies?
Rhabdoviridae or Lyssavirus (group of RNA viruses)
What are the vectors for Rabies?
canines, raccoons, skunks, foxes, coyotes, and bats
Where is Rabies most common?
rural areas of Asia and Africa
What is the incubation period for Rabies?
1-3 months (however, wide range of days to years)
How long is the acute symptom phase of Rabies?
What are the symptoms of Rabies?
Early: non-specific, flu-like symptoms
Itching/prickling at the site of bite; may progress to anxiety, confusion, cerebral dysfunction
What are the clinical signs of Rabies?
Furious Rabies: hyperactivity, excited behavior, hallucinations, hydrophobia, death due to cardio-respiratory arrest
Paralytic Rabies: 30% of cases; muscles slowly become paralyzed, coma develops, followed by death
-->once clinical signs occur, almost always fatal
What is the treatment for PEP of Rabies in people not previously vaccinated?
wound cleansing with soap/water & virucidal agent, HRIG 20 IU/kg, HDCV or PCECV (depending on egg allergy) 1 mL IM in the shoulder on
days 0, 3, 7, & 14
What is the treatment for PEP of Rabies in people previously vaccinated?
wound cleansing with soap/water & virucidal agent & HDCV or PCECV (depending on egg allergy) 1 mL IM in the shoulder on
days 0 & 3
What is the difference in PEP of Rabies in immunocompromised pts?
they should receive vaccine on
days 0, 3, 7, 14, & 28
What is day 0?
the day the first dose of vaccine is administered
What is the causative agent of Salmonellosis?
What is the primary vector for Salmonellosis?
animal feces (turtles, lizards, snakes & birds); also can occur with contaminated food/water
What is the incubation period for Salmonellosis?
What are the symptoms of Salmonellosis?
diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever
severe complications: reactive arthritis
Most infections of Salmonellosis are ______-_____ within __-__ days
self-limiting; 4-7--> require no abx therapy
What populations may become septic and/or need supportive care for diarrhea in Salmonellosis infections?
extremes of age & immunocompromised
What is the treatment of Salmonellosis?
consider abx for S. typhi, S. paratyphi or if there is extra-intestinal spread
In pts who are at risk for bacteremia Salmonellosis, what is the treatment?
empiric abx: fluoroquinolone or axithromycin + rifampin
alternative: bactrim, ampicillin, 3rd gen cephalosporin
48-72 hours or until pt afebrile
In pts who definitely have bacteremia Salmonellosis, what is the treatment?
fluoroquinolone + 3rd gen cephalosporin for 7-10 days
What is the causative agent for Cryptosporidium?
Cryptosporidium hominis & Cryptosporidium parvum; alos can occur with contaminated food/water
What are symptoms of Cryptosporidium?
diarrhea, weight loss, fever, fatigue
When do symptoms begin after exposure of Cryptosporidium?
7-10 days; usually self-limiting resolving within 2-3 wks
What is the treatment for Cryptosporidium?
usually supportive care (fluid & electrolyte replacement); Nitazoxanide 500 mg PO q12h x 3 days with food (immunocompromised pts who are ≤ 1 year)
What is the causative agent for Leptosporidium?
Leptospira spp (spirochete)
What is the primary vector for Leptosporidium?
Animal fluids; also can occur with contaminated water/soil
How long is the incubation period for Leptosporidium?
What are the acute phase symptoms of Leptosporidium?
HA< fever, myalgia, nausea, diarrhea, uveitis, rash
What are the immune phase symptoms of Leptosporidium?
antibody production in urine
What are the icteric symptoms of Leptosporidium?
most severe form (5-10% of pts); jaundice, renal failure, hemorrhage, arrhythmias, hemodynamic instability
What is the treatment for Leptosporidium?
Doxy: iniate ASAp, decreases severity & duration of illness
IV Pen: for severe infections
What is the prophylaxis tx for Leptosporidium?
Doxy 200 mg q wk: start 1-2 days prior to and continue through period of exposure
What is the causative agent for Ebola?
Where was Ebola first discovered?
near the Ebola River in Congo
What is the likely natural reservoir of Ebola?
What are symptoms of Ebola?
fever, severe HA, unexplained hemorrhage
How long is the incubation period of Ebola?
8-10 days (range: 2-21 days)
How is Ebola transmitted?
blood/bodily fluids (direct mucous membrane contact, objects with fluids, infected animals)
How is Ebola NOT spread?
air, water, food
What is the treatment for Ebola?
supportive care: IV fluids, replace electrolytes, O2 & BP
Experimental: ZMAPP (monoclonal antibody, no data in humans); TKM-Ebola (interferes with viral RNA)
Vaccine: VSV-EBOV (live vaccine, PrEP & PEP)
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
immunization and Communicable Disease PEDS Midterm
NP 702 Blueprint Treatment Practice - short cards…
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Ischemic Heart Disease NAPLEX 2021
Hypertension NAPLEX 2021
Dyslipidemia NAPLEX 2021
Diabetes NAPLEX 2021
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
NUTR 1120: Exam 2
APUSH - Unit 5 Study Guide
The Basics of Government
BIO 121: Lecture 25: Wound Healing