Psychology 280 Exam 1
Social psych- read this one
Terms in this set (78)
What is social psychology?
scientific study of the way in which people's thoughts, feelings, behaviors, are influenced by real or imagined presence of other people.
What is social influence?
Effect that words, actions, mere presence of other people have on our thoughts, feelings, attitudes, behaviors
what are individual differences?
Aspects of people's personalities that make them different from other people
what is the fundamental attribution error?
Tendency to overestimate the extent to which people's behavior is due to internal, dispositional factors, underestimating the role of situational factors
what is behaviorism?
School of psychology maintaining that to understand human behavior, one need only consider the reinforcing properties of the environment
what is a construal?
The way in which people perceive, comprehend, interpret the world
what is gestalt psychology?
School of psychology stressing importance of studying subjective way in which an object appears in people's minds rather than the objective, physical attributes of the object
what is self-esteem?
People's evaluations of their own self-worth -- that is, extent to which they view selves as good, competent, and decent
what is social cognition?
How people think about themselves and the social world; how people select, interpret, remember, use social information to make judgments and decisions
what is the self-fulfilling prophecy?
Expect that you or another person will behave in someway so you act in ways to make predictions come true
what is hindsight bias?
People exaggerate how much they could have predicted an outcome after knowing that it occurred
what is diffusion of responsibility?
Nobody has responsibility to help a person in need and just assume someone will eventually help them
what is the observational method?
Technique whereby a researcher observes people and systemically records measurements or impressions of their behavior
what is ethnography?
Method by which researchers attempt to understand a group, culture by observing in from the inside without imposing any preconceived notions they have
what is interjudge reliability?
Level of agreement between 2 or more people who independently observe and code a set of data; shows 2 or more judges independently come up with the same observations, researchers ensure that the observations are not the subjective, distorted impression of one individual
what is archival analysis?
Form of the observational method in which the researcher examines the accumulated documents, archives of a culture
what is the correlational method?
Technique whereby two or more variables that systemically measure relationship between them
what is the correlation coefficient?
Statistical technique that assess how well you can predict one variable from another
what are surveys?
Research in which a representative sample of people are asked questions about attitudes and behaviors
what is random selection?
Way of ensuring that a sample of people is representative of a population by giving everyone in the population an equal chance of being selected for sample
what is the experimental method?
Method in which the researchers randomly assigns participants to different conditions and ensures that these conditions are identical except for indep. Variable
what is the independent variable?
Variable researcher changes or varies to see if it has an effect on some other variable
what is the dependent variable?
Variable a researcher measures to see if it's influence by the indep. Variable. Researcher hypothesizes dependent variable depends on level of independent variable
what is the random assignment to condition?
Process ensuring that all participants have an equal chance of taking part in any condition of an experiment. Uses random assignment, researchers can be certain that differences in participants' personalities/backgrounds are distributed evenly across conditions
what is the probability level? (p-level)
a # calculated w/ a statistical technique, tells researchers how likely it is the results of their experiment occurred by chance and not b/c of the indep. Variable
what is internal validity?
Making sure nothing besides the independent variable can affect the dependent variable
what is external validity?
Extent to which the results of a study can be generalize to other situations and other people
what is psychological realism?
Extent to which the psychological processes triggered in an experiement are similar to psychological processes that occur in everyday life
what is a cover story?
Disguised version of the study's true purpose
what is a field experiment?
Experiements conducted in natural settings rather than in the lab
what are replications?
Repeating a study, often w/ different subject populations or in different settings
what is meta-analysis?
Statistical technique that averages the results of two or more studies to see if the effect of an independent variable is reliable
what is basic research?
Studies that are designed to find the best answer to the question of why people behave as they do
what is applied research?
studies designed to solve a particular social problem
what is cross-cultural research?
Research conducted with members of different cultures
what is evolutionary theory?
Developed by charles darwin to explain ways in which animals adapt to their environment
what is natural selection?
Process by which heritable traits that promote survival in a particular environment are passed along to future generations
what is evolutionary psychology?
Attempt to explain social behavior in terms of genetic factors that have evolved over time according to principles of natural selection
what is informed consent?
Agreement to participate in experiment
what is deception?
Misleading participants about the true purpose of a study
what is the IRB?
Reviews research before it's conducted
what is debriefing?
Explaining purpose of experiment at the end of experiment to participants
what is social cognition?
How people think about themselves and the social world. How people select, interpret, remember, use social information to make judgments and decisions
what is automatic thinking?
Thinking that is nonconscious, unintentional, involuntary, effortless
what are mental schemas?
Mental structures that organize our knowledge about social world
what is accessibility?
Extent to which schemas and concepts are at the forefront of the mind and are therefore likely to be used when making judgments about hte social world
what is priming?
Process by which recent experiences increase accessibility of schema, trait, concept
what is the self fulfilling prophecy?
Case where people have expectations about what another person is like, which influences how they act towards that person
what is judgmental heuristics?
Mental shortcuts people use to make judgments quickly and effciently
what is availability heuristic?
A mental rule of thumb whereby people base a judgment on the ease with which they can bring something to mind
what is the representaiveness heuristic?
Mental shortcut we use to classify something according to now similar to a typical case
what is the base rate information?
Information about the frequency of members of different categories in the population
what is the analytic thinking style?
Style of thinking in which people focus on the properties of objects without considering their surrounding context
what is the holstic thinking style?
Type of thinking in which people focus on the overall context, particularly the ways in which objects relate to each other
what is controlled thinking?
Defined as thinking that is unconscious, intentional, voluntary, effortful
what is counterfactual thinking?
Mentally changing some aspect of the past as a way of imagining what might have been
what is the overconfidence barrier?
Fact that people usually have too much confidence in the accuracy of their judgment
what is social perception?
Study of how we form impressions of and make inferences about other people
what is nonverbal communication?
Way in which people communicate intentionally/unintentionally
what is encoding?
Express or emit nonverbal behavior, such as smiling, patting someone on the back
what is decoding?
Interpret meaning of the nonverbal behavior other people express, such as deciding that a pat on the back was an expression of condescension and not kindness
what are display rules?
Culturally determined rules about which nonverbal behaviors are appropriate to display
what are emblems?
Nonverbal gestures that have well-understood definitions within a given culture
what implicit personality theory?
Type of schema people use to group various types of personality traits together
what is the attribution theory?
Description of the way in which people explain causes of their own behavior and others' behaviors
what is internal attribution?
Inference that a person is behaving in a certain way b/c of something about the person -- attitude, character, personality
what is external attribution?
inference that a person is behaving a certain way b/c of the situation they are in
what is the covariation model?
Thoery that states to form an attribution about what cause a persona's behavior -- systematically note the patterns between the presence or absence of possible causual factors
what is consense information?
Info about the extent to which people behave the same way toward the same stimulus as the actor does
what is distinctiveness information?
Refers to how the actor responds to other stimuli
what is consistency information?
Refers to the frequency w/ which the observed behavior between the same actor and same stimulus across across time and circumstances
what is the fundamental attribution error?
Tendency to overestimate the extent to which people's behavior is due to internal, dispositional factors, to underestimate the role of situational factors
what is perceptual salience?
Seeming importance of information that is the focus of people's attention
what is the two-step process?
Analyzing another person's behavior first by making automatic internal attribution and only then thinking about possible situational reasons for the behavior
what are self-serving attributions?
Explanations for one's successs that credit internal, dispositional factors and explanations for ones failures that blame external factors
what are defensive attributions?
Explanations for behaviors that avoid feelings of vulnerability and mortality
what is the bias blind spot?
Tendency to think that other people are more susceptive to attributional biases in their thinking than we are
what is belief in a just world?
Form of defensive attribution wherein people assume that bad things happen to bad people and good things happen to good people
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Social Psychology | Bordens, Horowitz
Aronson/Wilson/Akert Social Psychology Chapters 1-4
Social Psych exam 1
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Psych 280 Exam 3 Iowa State
psych 317 exam 2
Chapter 3: Social Psychology By David Myers
Social Psychology Chpt. 3