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118 terms

soc final

STUDY
PLAY
Monogamy
One husband with one wife at a time.
Polygyny
One man with more than one wife.
Polyandry
One women with more than one husband.
Family of Orientation
A type of nuclear family consisting of myself, my parents and my siblings.
Family of Procreation
A type of nuclear family consisting of myself, my husband and my children.
Household
People who occupy the same housing unit.
Family
two or more people who consider themselves related by blood, marriage or adoption.
Exogamy
The practice of marrying outside ones group ex. insect.
Endogamy
The practice of marrying within one's own group ex. blacks with blacks and whites with whites.
Patriarchy
A group in which men as a group dominate women as a group; authority is vested in males.
Matriarchy
a society in which women as a group dominate men as a group; authority is vested in women.
Egalitarian
authority more or less equally divided between people or groups.
Patrilineal
system of descent, reckoning descent that counts only the fathers side.
Matrilineal
system of descent, reckoning descent that counts only the mothers side.
Bilineal
system of descent, reckoning descent that counts both the mothers and the father's side.
Serial Fatherhood
A pattern of parenting in which a father, after a divorce, reduces contact with his own children, serves as a father to the children of the women he marries or lives with, then ignores these children, too, after moving in with marrying another women.
Incest Taboo
Prohibits sex and marriage among designated relatives; universal norm, helps families to avoid role confusion.
Monolithic Family Form
Two biological parents and their biological children all living in the same household.
Stratus
Research that demonstrates, controversially, that husbands and wives are committing about equal amounts of violence toward one another.
Grandparents
Providing childcare for parents and single parents.
Fictive Kin
People not related by blood but, has helped in hard times, still are considered apart of one's family.
Change in US Family Structures
Family structure changing from "trees" to "beanpoles" due to people waiting longer to have children and then having less.
Sprey
Families experiencing two conflicting demands; members must compete with another for autonomy, control and at the same time family members must share each other's fate to survive.
Machismo
the emphasis on male strength, sexual vigor, and dominance; decreasing over time Latino families are in the US due to assimilation.
Confucianism
values that provide a framework for family life: humanism, collectivity, self-discipline, hierarchy; the way of Asian families.
Poverty
the largest source if stress in single-parent families.
Sandwich Generation
People who find themselves sandwiched between and responsible for two other generations; children and parents.
Cultural Transmission of Values
the process of transmitting values from one group to another; often used in reference to how cultural traits are transmitted across generations and, in education, in ways in which schools transmit a society's values.
Social Promotion
Passing students on to the next level even though they have not mastered basic materials.
The amount of work that women put in after they get home from working eight hours a day for wages is described by Hochschild as the working wife's
second shift
All people who occupy the same housing unit
a house, apartment, or other living quarters constitute-a household
The type of family that consists of a husband, wife, and children is a
nuclear family.
In the United States, the choice of a marriage partner tends to be
influenced by social factors including age, education, class, race and religion
An incest taboo refers to
he prohibition of sexual relationships between certain culturally specified relatives.
From what perspective, we create our own worlds. This implies that to have a good marriage, it is essential for people to perceive that a good marriage is possible and worth working toward achieving
symbolic interactionist
The family of orientation is
the family in which an individual grows ups
Functionalists say that the family fulfills a need for all
economic production, socialization of children and sexual control.
In the United States, most people marry within their social class racial
ethnic group, religious affiliation and other categories considered important within their own social group. This pattern is referred to as-Endogamy
The fact that women in the United States have traditionally taken their husband's family name upon marriage reflects
patrilineal elements in American culture.
From a conflict perspective, the real purpose of education is to
perpetuate existing social inequalities.
Public schools are largely supported by
local property taxes.
Teacher expectations and face
to-face interactions are of interest to which theoretical perspective-Symbolic interactionism.
A process by which school passes a society's core values from one generation to the next is
cultural transmission.
Sorting students into different educational programs on the basis of their perceived abilities is
tracking
The practice of passing students from one grade to the next even though they have not mastered basic materials is
social promotion.
Sociologist James Coleman and Thomas Hoffer found that Catholic schools produce better results than public school because the Catholic schools
have higher standards.
Sociologist Emile Durkheim found that all religions separate
the sacred and the profane.
Symbolic interactionists study religion to
understand the meaning people give to their experiences.
Karl Marx believed that religion
takes the minds of the oppressed workers off their misery.
Large numbers of people who organize to promote or resist social change are
social movements
The sweeping changes ushered in by the Industrial Revolution are called
modernization.
"Technology" refers to all
artificial means of extending human ability, tools as simple as a comb as well as those as complicated as a computer and the skills or procedures to make and use tools.
People who feel threatened because some condition of society is changing and organize to resist that change are engaging in a
reactive social movement
Which of the following is NOT one of the stages of a social movement, as identified by various sociologists?
Disorganization.
The presentation of information in the attempt to influence people is referred to as
propaganda
Political parties whose central issue is the environment are classified as being
green parties
1. The blank refers to the powerful nations that dominate the world today
Group of Seven
2. Sociologists are most interested in how new technology
changes peoples' way of life and reshapes a society.
3. Industrialization can enhance people's quality of life if we
control industrialization's effect on the natural world
1. Which sociological perspective focuses on the use of microsociology as its primary level of analysis
symbolic interactionism
2. What is the term used to describe a group's language, beliefs, values, behaviors, and gestures
culture
Which three variables does the author of your textbook recognize as being especially significant in determining one's social class
occupational prestige, income, and education
What do the concepts of judge, professor, mother, student, soldier, and mechanic have in common
They are all achieved statuses.
Cordell Walker is a Texas ranger, a husband, a father, a good friend to many, and a martial artist. Together, what term do sociologists use for the titles that apply to Ranger Walker
status set
What term describes a position in life that one does not choose, but is awarded at birth or is related to the life course
ascribed status
Of the following, which status least qualifies as a master status
licensed driver
Connie is an 82
year-old retired full professor taking undergraduate courses in deviance, criminology, and juvenile delinquency. Which sociological term most applies to Connie being 82 and an undergraduate student-status inconsistency
What is the set of behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a position a person occupies in life
a role set
A[n] ________ designates social position while a[n] ________ designates socially expected behavior
status; role
What term applies to the structured mechanisms society develops to meet its basic needs, such as family, religion, education, and medicine
social institutions
What term describes people who share a common culture and live in a specific geographic territory
society
Which social institution is most concerned about life after death and the meaning of suffering and loss
religion
How many members belonged to each group in the typical hunting and gathering society
25 to 40
In the horticultural society some people engaged in art, metal working, carpentry, and occupations other than those related to food production. What term describes this specialization of work
the division of labor
What event ushered in the biotech society
Crick and Watson identified the double-helix structure of DNA in 1953.
What was the term Durkheim used to describe the shared consciousness that people experience as a result of performing the same or similar tasks
mechanical solidarity
Hilda is studying at the library. She has placed her coat on the chair next to her and has spread books in front of the other chairs radiating out to about four feet. Hilda is trying to establish a "distance zone" that Hall would call Hilda's
personal distance
What sociologist developed the concept of dramaturgy
Erving Goffman
Alice is getting ready for an interview with a potential employer. She has picked out a blazer and skirt and has had her hair done at the beauty shop. Alice is relying on her manner and her appearance to communicate to the employer that she would be an excellent employee. What term would Goffman use to describe Alice's behavior
impression management
In studied nonobservance, what reaction can be expected when an embarrassing or inappropriate act occurs
Both parties ignore the act and business continues as if nothing happened.
Which of the following statements summarizes the Thomas Theorem
If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences.
Who was the sociologist who conducted research on the "Saints" and the "Roughnecks" to demonstrate the need to utilize both macrosociology and microsociology, often in the same study
William Chambliss
In the report on the Saints and the Roughnecks, from the community's point of view, the real indication that the Roughnecks were in for real trouble in the future was that
these boys were constantly involved with the police for one incident after another
According to sociologists, what is the primary reason for the differences people have in behavior and attitude
Their particular location in the social structure.
What term describes people who share the same physical space but do not see themselves as belonging together as a group
aggregate
What is the largest and most complex type of group
society
There are 35 cars backed up at the intersection of Route 30 and Pennsylvania Avenue Friday afternoon because of an accident. Which sociological term best describes these 35 driver
an aggregate
What sociological term best describes lovers, cult members, and members of a combat infantry platoon
a primary group
Patrick has been a member of the Democratic Party since he registered to vote over forty years ago. He eventually became a part of the local party leadership and established close ties to many members of subcommittees. He is now the county party chairman. Patrick's experience in the Democratic Party supports which of the following conclusions about primary and secondary groups
Secondary groups often tend to break down into smaller, more personal primary groups.
Which sociologist described the importance of primary groups as "the springs of life"
Charles Horton Cooley
Which set of characteristics is most applicable to describing a secondary group
formal, impersonal, anonymous
According to Cooley, primary groups may be structured differently in different cultures, but their importance persists. He believes we may be biologically predisposed to find primary groups, but human nature emerges through fellowwship; in isolation, human nature
decays
Cody is a member of the L.A. Crips. The other gangs in his territory are the Bloods and Satan's Slaves. Cody feels very antagonistic towards the Bloods and the Slaves. For Cody, what type of group do these two rival gangs represent
out-groups
From the time Anthony took his first college course he wanted to be a professor. He subscribed to journals, attended conferences, and worked hard to graduate near the top of his class. In view of this, what type of group is "college professor" in relation to Anthony's aspirations
College professors serve as Anthony's reference group.
Cathy communicates frequently with people on the Internet who are avid Pittsburgh Steeler fans. She has just spent several hours talking to Joann, Judy, Rhiannon, and Scott about the Steelers' new coach. What term best describes the group Cathy and her Internet buddies comprise
an electronic community
Samantha works in a place that is hierarchical in nature, has a division of labor, written rules, communications and records, and one in which workers treat each other impersonally. Based on these characteristics, what can we conclude about Samantha's workplace
Samantha works in a bureaucracy.
Of the following characteristics, which one least applies to bureaucracies
personal attention and individual creativity
The March of Dimes was originally formed to find a cure for polio. When that occurred it changed its goal to prevent birth defects. Now it simply promotes "healthier babies" as its goal. What is such a change in an organization's mission to perpetuate its existence called
goal displacement
Becky has placed pictures of her two children, the family dog, and her summer vacation on the walls of her work cubicle. By doing so, what is Becky trying to accomplish
She is taking steps to resist bureaucratic alienation.
What term describes the tendency of a bureaucracy to promote employees to their level of incompetence
the Peter Principle
What conclusion did Georg Simmel reach with respect to the size of a group
The smaller the group, the more unstable it is.
As group size increases it is less and less likely individuals will come forward to complete group tasks needing done unless specifically assigned to do so. They may begin to assume someone else will finish the job. What term describes this phenomenon of group dynamics
diffusion of responsibility
Joanne is a member of a group that is developing a questionnaire as a group project in her Introduction to Sociology class. Whenever they meet, Joanne finds she is always trying to keep the group focused on putting the questionnaire together. Joanne is exhibiting what type of leadership style
instrumental
Bob is the newly
appointed regional manager of the highway department. He has told his district managers not to bother him with telephone calls or e-mails on how to manage their districts. What style of leadership describes Bob's passive and apparently uninvolved approach to his job-laissez-faire
A group that is organized on the basis of some mutual interest, such as the Girl Scouts, Knights of Columbus, and Habitat for Humanity is classified as being
a voluntary or normative group.
What conclusion can be drawn from Solomon Asch's experiment on group conformity
Because of group pressure, most people are willing to say things they know are not true.
What was the conclusion reached by Stanley Milgram in his "teacher
learner" experiment-Many people will inflict pain on others if ordered to do so by a person in a position of authority.
Who was the sociologist responsible for explaining the groupthink phenomenon
Irving Janis
In bureaucracies, what common term refers to the many rules and procedures that may often appear to defy all logic
bureaucratic ritualism
For a deviant act to be classified as a crime, what quality must pertain to it
It must be a rule written into law.
Which sociological perspective is most aligned with the relative nature of the ways we define and interpret deviance
symbolic interactionist
In parts of the Mideast, suicide bombers are offered high praise for their fatal acts of patriotism. Their parents are compensated, and it is believed the suicide bomber immediately goes to heaven where he or she is greeted by Allah and 72 virgins. What does this scenario represent as it relates to behavior
a positive sanction
What concept refers to the formal and informal means of enforcing norms thereby controlling or reducing the amount of deviance that occurs
social control processes
What are the unwritten, taken
for-granted "rules" of behavior that underlie our routine, everyday lives-folkways
Which social scientist would address the cause of deviance as being based on genetic predisposition and causes within the individual
a sociobiologist
Based on his Differential Association Theory explaining the cause of deviance and crime, what would Edwin Sutherland consider as the underlying cause of deviance
group association
Based on control theory, when are inner controls more effective
When we have formed strong attachments, commitments, and involvement with
As a part of his court martial, Captain Savage was publicly stripped of his rank insignia, the buttons of his uniform were ripped off, and he was banished from the cavalry. What did this ritual following a court martial represent
degradation ceremony