15 terms

Genetics

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Terms in this set (...)

Gene
A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
Allele
Different forms of a gene
Protein
An organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
observable characteristics
phenotype
homozygous
Having two identical alleles for a particular gene
heterozygous
having two different alleles for a trait
dominant allele
An allele that is always expressed
recessive allele
An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
Genotype
An organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations.
Punnett Square
A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
meiosis
a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
Fertilization
Process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell
dominant-recessive inheritance
a pattern of inheritance in which, under heterozygous conditions, the influence of only one allele is apparent
incomplete dominance
A pattern of inheritance in which two alleles, inherited from the parents, are neither dominant nor recessive. The resulting offspring have a phenotype that is a blending of the parental traits.
Codominance
A condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed
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