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Human Geography Chapter 9 vocab
Terms in this set (38)
Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain.
Aquaculture (or aquafarming)
The cultivation of seafood under controlled conditions
A grass that yields grain for food
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
Any plant gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil
A form of commercial agriculture that specializes in the production of milk and other dairy products
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions such as excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting. Also known as semiarid land degradation.
Dietary energy consumption
The amount of food that an individual consumes, measured in kilocalories (calories in the United States)
Harvesting twice a year from the same field.
The capture of wild fish and other seafood living in the waters
Physical, social, and economic access at all times to safe and nutritious food sufficient to meet dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.
Genetically modified organisms
A living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology.
Seed of a cereal grass
Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.
The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers.
Intensive subsistence agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture characteristics of Asia's major population concentrations in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied.
Mixed crop and livestock farming
Commercial farming characterized by integration of crops and livestock; most of the crops are fed to animals rather than consumed directly by humans.
A farming practice that leaves all of the soil undisturbed and the entire residue of the previous year's harvest left untouched on the fields.
Capturing fish faster than they can reproduce
The Malay word for wet rice, increasingly used to describe a flooded field.
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country.
Prime agriculture land
The most productive farmland
A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area.
System of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation.
A flooded field for growing rice
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris.
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning.
The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.
Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named for the Middle English word truck, meaning "barter" or "exchange of commodities."
Dietary energy consumption that is continuously below the minimum requirement for maintaining a healthy life and carrying out light physical activity.
Rice planted on dry land in a nursery and then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth
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