Information that describes the content, quality, condition, origin, and other characteristics of data or other pieces of information. Metadata for spatial data may describe and document its subject matter; how, when, where, and by whom the data was collected; availability and distribution information; its projection, scale, resolution, and accuracy; and its reliability with regard to some standard. Spatial thinking is thinking that finds meaning in the shape, size, orientation, location, direction or trajectory, of objects, processes or phenomena, or the relative positions in space of multiple objects, processes or phenomena. Spatial thinking uses the properties of space as a vehicle for structuring problems, for finding answers, and for expressing solutions Images are stored as raster data wherein each cell in the image has a row and column number. Vector data, such as feature classes in geodatabases, shapefiles, and coverages, is stored in real-world coordinates. To display images with this vector data, it is necessary to establish an image-to-world transformation that converts the image coordinates to real-world coordinates. This transformation information is typically stored with the image.
Generally, image formats, such as ERDAS IMAGINE, BSQ, BIL, BIP, GeoTIFF, and grids, store the georeferencing information in the header of the image file. However, several image formats (including those listed) store this information in a separate ASCII world file