42 terms

3/4 Cold War study set


Terms in this set (...)

2nd Red Scare
the growing concern about the security of the United States. The Soviet domination of Eastern Europe and the Communist takeover of China shocked the American public, fueling a fear that communism would spread around the world. In addition, 100,000 Americans claimed membership in the Communist party after WWII, resulting in the public's fear that these peoples' first loyalty was to the Soviet Union
Loyalty Review Board
Group that investigated government employees and dismissed those who were found to be disloyal to the U.S. government. It was set up as a part of the Federal Employee Loyalty Program to combat communism in America
a congressional committee that investigated Communist influence inside and outside the U.S. government in the years following WWII. The committee first made headlines when it began to investigate communist influence in the movie industry because they believed that communists were sneaking propaganda into films. The committee pointed to the pro-Soviet Union films made during WWII when the Soviet Union had been a United States ally
Hollywood Ten
Group of people in the film industry who were jailed for refusing to answer congressional questions regarding Communist influence in Hollywood
a list of 500 actors, writers; producers; and directors who were not allowed to work on Hollywood flims b/c of the alleged Communist connections
Were American communists who were executed after having been found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage. The charges were in relation to the passing of information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. Theirs was the first execution of civilians for espionage in United States history
Joseph McCarthy
1950s; Wisconsin senator claimed to have list of communists in American goverment, but no credible evidence; took advantage of fears of communism post WWII to become incredibly influential; "McCarthyism" was the fearful accusation of any dissenters of being communists
the attacks, often unsubstantiated, by Senator Joseph McCarthy and the people suspected of being communist in the early 1950s
United Nations (UN)
An international peacekeeping organization to which most nations in the world belong, founded in 1945 to promote world peace, security, and economic development
satellite nation
A country that is dominated politically and economically by another nation
The blocking of another nations attempts to spread its influence
iron curtain
Phrased used by Winston Churchill, in 1946, to describe an imaginary line that separated Communist countries in the Soviet bloc of Eastern Europe from countries in Western Europe
Cold War
The state of hostility, without direct military conflict, that developed between the United States and the Soviet Union after WW2
Truman Doctrine
U.S. Policy, announced by Harry S. Truman in 1947, of providing economic and military aid to free nations threatened by internal or external opponents
Marshall Plan
The United States supplied economic aid to European nations to help them rebuild after WW2
Berlin airlift
A 327-day operation in which the U.S. and British planes flew food and supplies into West Berlin after the Soviets blockaded the city in 1948
North AtlanticTreaty Organization (NATO)
A defensive military alliance formed in 1949 by ten Western European Countries, the United States, and Canada
In what two ways did the United States and the Soviet Union differ?
Under Soviet communism, the state controlled all property and economic activity, while in the capitalistic American system, private citizens controlled almostall economic activity.

In the American system, voting by the people elected a president and a congress from competing political parties; in the Soviet Union,the Communist Party established a totalitarian government with no opposing parties.
Why did relations worsen between the US and the Soviet Union during WWII?
1. The United States was furious that Joseph Stalin had been an ally of Hitler for a time; Stalin had supported the Allies only after Hitler invaded theSoviet Union

2. Stalin resented the Western Allies'' delay in attacking the Germans in Europe. Such an attack, he thought, would draw part of the German army awayfrom the Soviet Union.

3. Relations worsened after Stalin learned that the United States had kept its development of the atomic bomb secret.
Why was the UN important to both the US and the Soviet Union?
Both the United States and the Soviet Union used the UN as a forum to spread their influence over others.
Who attended the Potsdam Conference?
U.S. - President Truman
Great Britain - Prime Minister Clement Attlee
Soviet Union - Stalin
What promise had Stalin not kept from the Yalta Conference?
allowing free elections in Poland and other Eastern EuropeN countries
Why did Truman want countries formerly under Nazi control to have free elections?
to spread democracy create new world order in which all nations had the right of self-determination
What were the US aims after WWII?
•Create a new world order in which all nations had the right of self-determination
•Gain access to raw materials and markets for its industries
•Rebuild European governments to ensure stability and to create new markets forAmerican goods
•Reunite Germany, believing that Europe would be more secure if Germany were productive
What were the Soviet aims after WWII?
•Encourage communism in other countries as part of the worldwide struggle between workers and the wealthy
•Rebuild its war-ravaged economy using Eastern Europe's industrial equipment and raw materials
•Control Eastern Europe to balance U.S. influence in Western Europe
•Keep Germany divided and weak so that it would never again threaten the Soviet Union
Describe how Germany was divided and unified after WWII?
at the end of WorldWar II, Germany was divided into four zones occupied by the United States, Great Britain, and France in the west and the Soviet Union in the east.

In 1948, Britain, France, and the United States decided to combine their three zones into one nation.

The western part of Berlin, which had been occupied by the French, British, and Americans, was surrounded by Soviet-occupied territory.
Chiang Kai-shek
(Jiang Jeshi) Leader of the Chinese nationalist government that relied on the support and aid from the United States.
Under Chiang Kai-shek these Chinese resisted the Japanese during the war.
Mao Zedong
Chinese Communist leader who gained strength by winning over peasant support.
People's Republic of China
The new government in China which the U.S. refused to recognize after Communists over threw Chiang Kai-shek and the nationalists.
38th Parallel
Line which divided North and South Korea into two nations, one communist and one democratic following World War II.
Republic of Korea (a.k.a. South Korea)
(South Korea) Established in the zone of Korea that had been occupied by the U.S. It's government was run by Syngam Rhee out of Seoul.
Syngman Rhee
Leader of the Republic of Korea (South Korea).
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
The nation formed in North Korea by Communists based in Pyongyang and run by Kim Il Sung.
Korean War (a.k.a. "The Forgotten War")
The conflict following North Korea's surprise attack on South Korea after crossing the 38th parallel.
General Douglas MacArthur
The combined troops of the UN and South Korea were put under the command of this U.S. general. Fired by President Truman.
Yalu River
The border between North Korea and China.
buffer state
How China referred to North Korea because the country protected the northeastern provinces of China that made up Manchuria.
An end to the fighting in the Korean War suggested by the Soviet Union.
demilitarized zone (a.k.a. DMZ)
Region between the opposing sides of the battle where military forces were banned.
An agreement to stop fighting.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
World War II hero who was elected as president after the high cost of the Korean which led to the rejection of the Democratic party.

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