Introduction to Counseling
Terms in this set (70)
Purpose of Counseling
remove all stress in clients life
A clients "way of construing self and others"
Explored and often changed as a result of counseling
Client issues in the cognitive, affective, and behavioral domains relate such that..
- If one thinks effectively they are more satisfactory and feel better.
- If one behaves ineffectively he/she is likely to feel unhappy and be less inclined to think things through
- If one feels better about self, he/she is more likely to think more clearly and act more effectively
The counselors understanding of human behavior
Helps him or her to account for and explain significant human reactions.
Not a potential fallacy of the diagnosing and hypothesis generating process
We know little about how to devise treatment plans based on specific diagnoses
The relationship between counselor and client
crucial that the client may drop out of counseling if there is not sufficient trust
Counseling has been characterized as
- intensely personal relationship where the counselor and client have both intellectual and affect work to accomplish
- A challenging give and take where each participant in some sense takes the measure of the other
to function ethically, the counselor..
must practice within the limits of his or her training and competence
If a counselor is good at "reaching out" it means that the counselor is..
effective in encouraging others to communicate openly and honestly with him/her
In order to establish and maintain an effective therapeutic relationship w a client. The counselor should:
Concentrate fully on what is being communicated to them by the client, understanding the meaning of events and circumstances that are reported.
A clients desire for change
may stem from poor social skills
which of the following is a process goal in counseling?
to use role-play to help a client rehearse new responses
A stage theory of counseling
Is built around the assumption that issues must be disclosed and clarified before goals will become apparent
Counselors who work with children and adolescents
Must recognize that their clients choices are legitimate concerns of the parents
A situation appropriate level of negative feelings about life circumstances
- Sign of good mental health
- Establishes a basis for action planning about how to manage life's difficulties
The Initial disclosure stage of counseling
The client begins to make discoveries about her of his situation in the process of the telling
In the commitment to action stage of counseling, the counselor's role might best be characterized as
- Laissez faire
- participative in planning change strategies
The conditions a counselor attempts to create in the initial disclosure phase of counseling:
Demonstrate the counselor's willingness to become involved at a personal level
When we say that a goal is the "flip-side" of a problem, what does that mean
That elements of the client's preferred solutions can be inferred by what is stated as a problem or concern
The state of counseling that is most stressful for the client
Different clients will experience stress differently
In the initial counseling session, it is important to
Invite the client to describe what brings her or him to counseling
The quality of empathy in counseling
Requires attention to both the meaning and the feeling of the client's statements.
Maude tells her counselor, "I am so thankful that I am able to stay in my own home. It is lonely at times, but its not like Della who has to do just whatever they tell her at that nursing home." The most empathic counselor response would be..
You really value your independence, but worry that you may not always be able to live on your own.
Unconditional positive regard
Comes with no strings attached
When a counselor finds it difficult to like a particular client:
It is desirable to consult with a supervisor or colleague to try to understand the feeling
Genuineness in a counseling relationship
Causes the counselor to act in ways congruent with his or her personality and thus consistently over time.
Concreteness is a principle that
Sets expectations for the counselor to respond selectively to the key issues of the client's story
Advice giving is a troublesome concept in counseling because
It can occur when a counselor feels pressure to relieve the client's stress, whether or not the client has gained insight into his or her problem
Questioning as a technique
- appropriate technique for collection some needed info
- carries the risk of teaching the client that the counselor will lead
- May strife the client's opportunity to disclose his or her concerns if used excessively
- Is sometimes used as a crutch
The in depth exploration stage of counseling is characterized by what
The end of client self-disclosure
Which statement best describes the reaction to feedback typical of most clients
They accept feedback more readily if it is reasonably consistent with self-concept
Advanced empathy is a response that what?
- may give voice to meanings in the clients experience of which the client was scarcely aware
- responds to thoughts and feelings that the client intends the counselor to hear but may not clearly state
- Stay with the client's frame of reference
- contributes to more rapid client insight than primary empathy when accurately conceived
Provide an opportunity to clarify events in the counselor/client relationship and sometimes relate them to other relationships the clients have
Confrontation as a counseling response
Identifies two or more elements of the client's disclosures that are incongruent with one another
When a client denies that a confrontation is correct the counselor should..
Admit that the confrontation might be wrong and ask the client to clarify the situation as he or she sees it
In using an interpretive response, the counselor..
- introduces a new way for the client to think about his or her experience
- Attempts to account for client behavior using his or her knowledge of human behavior
- Uses his or her integrative skills to understand what the client is trying to accomplish by his or her behaviors
- adds new concepts that are beyond the client's frame of reference
Role-playing or behavior rehearsal can be particularly useful in..
Creating new endings to the clients conflicted relationships with others
As a result of the in-depth exploration of the second counseling stage
The client becomes clearer on where he or she has "come from" and where he or she wants to go begins to set goals
If counseling is going well in the in depth exploration stage, both counselor and client will likely feel that the sessions are
- Emotionally involving an intellectually challenging
- Personal and meaningful
When a counselor uses selective reelection as a technique in stage three work, he or she will respond to the part of the client's statement that
Shows yearning or readiness for change
Ability potential responses
-Provide encouragement by expressing confidence in the client's readiness to act in a specific way
- Are used to help build from a goal to an action plan
In weighing alternative courses of action it would be most reasonable for a client to choose an option that:
Is highly desirable though somewhat difficult to accomplish
In the debate over counselor directiveness in goal-setting
- There is one camp that believes that counselors as experts have a responsibility to suggest goals and choices
- There is another campt that believes that goals and actions suggested by the counselor may increase resistance
- Somebelieve that the depth of the relationship determines the appropriateness of suggesting goals
- If the client remains ambivalent about change, this is not a time to become directive.
- Are typically initiated in the counseling session, but require effort outside the counseling room to implement
- can be devised to facilitate changes in thinking and feeling
Reviewing the outcome of homework
- Provides an opportunity for the client to develop pride in his or her successes
- May lead to modification of the action plan to correct oversights in the previous assignment
A counselor encourages a woman who wishes to have a more active social life to be more responsive with men she meets in daily life. The homework assignment is..
A plan that has both high value and high risk attached
If a client has difficulty implementing an action plan
- The action may have been desirable from the client's viewpoint but just to novel to carry out.
- The client may be reluctant to give up the rewards associated with the old behavior.
When a client attempts to implement changes in his or her ways of doing things
- Other people in the client's life might resist those changes
- It is usually not possible for a client to anticipate how others will react to the changes.
- Rehearsing the behavior changes and ways to handle responses of others usually is of little value
- There is not much the counselor can do to influence how the client handles the situation once she or he leaves the counseling room
When counseling has been successful the client will have
Gained in self-knowledge and in the knowledge of how to attack future difficulties
Which of the following constitutes as an unethical action
Accepting a loan from your client to buy a home
Codes of ethics are valuable because
They offer counselors a view of the wisdom and ethical values of the profession
The principle of respect for autonomy means that counselors
Apply it when people are capable of understanding the implications of their choices
Because counseling is defined as a profession that offers help to people in need
Counselors must be competent to do the work
Nonmaleficence is best defined as
The avoidance of harm to a client whenever possible
The most common reasons for unethical practice are
- They get distracted by other considerations and just don't think enough about ethical issues
- They place their own self-interest as the highest priority
All of the following is true about counselors who are disciplined for ethical behavior except
They are more likely to have no religious affiliation
The most common ethical dilemma that arises in the day to day work of counselors i
Whether client confidentiality should be honored or breached in talking to parents and family members without a client
Sometimes ethics codes demand that counselors disobey a law if it is unjust
Counselors are ethically obliged to promote the good reputation of the profession
Assessment is a crucial step in the counseling process because it
- Helps determine whether counseling is likely to be useful for the client's presenting concern.
- Creates the casks for any interventions or action plans that will occur in the counseling.
- Is often necessary in order to provide a diagnosis for insurance purposes.
- Helps both counselor and client define the countries of the problem
When one gets to the action planning stage of counseling, the range of possible trial behaviors a client may try is most related to
The strength and coping skills that were identified in the assessment process
As we use diagnosis in this chapter
- It is assumed that clients might have different problems and diagnoses in different domains of their lives
- A diagnosis serves as the basis for building an action plan
When intake interviews are used by an agency to screen clients
- A mental status exam may be employed to assess the clients general level of functioning
- Clients may find the "once over" approach threatening and become more reluctant about counseling
When developing a diagnosis of the problems of a child
There is no substitute for direct observation of the child's reactions to people and events.
The essence of assessment as presented in this chapter is that:
The counselor and client should come to a clearer understanding of problem areas, their boundaries, and factors that maintain or lessen their intensity
When a counselor comes to a conclusion about a diagnosis before the client does
The clients defenses may be delaying awareness of the diagnosis
When we talk of understanding the boundaries of a problem, we mean learning
- When and how frequently the problem is experienced
- How long the problem has existed
- Whether others create or contribute to the problem
- In what circumstances does the problem manifest itself.
Learning how a client has attempted to solve his or her problems prior to entering counseling
Provides the counselor with information about the client's problem solving skills and personality
Just as in medical diagnosis, it is usually possible to find a specific cause for the problems in daily living presented by clients