27 terms

Ethics Midterm Exam

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

science
can answer many questions related to health
ethics
essential for understanding care
level 1 pre-conventional
children; obedience and punishment; self-interest orientation
level 2 conventional
conforming to norms to be a "good boy" or "good girl" and maintaining conventions to preserve social stability; adolescence/young adulthood; interpersonal accord and conformity; authority and social-order maintaining
level 3 post-conventional
few people articulate principled justifications for guide moral decisions; social contract orientation; universal ethical principles
system 1 thinking
fast, automatic, intuitive, largely unconscious, reliant on affect and conditioned emotional associations
system 2 thinking
slow, deliberate, analytical, requires conscious effort to analyze and think explicitly about reality, less influenced by past events and feelings
deductivism
deducing from general guidelines to make moral judgments; top down
inductivism
generalize from social agreements and practices as morality evolves; bottom up
consequentialist or utilitarianism
Mill; principle of utility justifies all other principles and rules; greatest good for the greatest number; human flourishing often viewed as the ultimate good; ends may justify the means
deontological or Kantian
Kant; obligations and rights are the highest authority; ends do not justify the means
rights theory
rights to autonomy, privacy, property, free speech, and worship are considered foundational to functional civil society; rights typically not absolute; prima facia rights
virtue theory
moral virtues and character traits have been primary goals of morality; people's motivations are critical to judging the consequences of their actions
respect for autonomy
involves not just claim to right of autonomy but requires respecting others' autonomy
Nonmaleficience
above all, do no harm; usually outweighs beneficence
beneficence
providing benefit, preventing harms; achieving most favorable balance of risks/harms and benefits
justice
fairness; giving to each his due
fidelity
loyalty, obligations to keep commitments, truth telling
compassion
concern and caring that is integrated with objectivity
discernment
deciding and judging without undue influence
trustworthiness
confidence that one will act with the right motives and appropriate moral norms
integrity
loyalty to upholding moral norms and sound, reliable, integrated moral character
conscientiousness
try to figure out what is right, intend to do it, and exert appropriate level of effort
privacy
the broadest concept, closest to the general principle of autonomy
confidentiality
the privacy of info divulged with promise or reasonable expectation of nondisclosure; essential for maintaining selfhood and autonomy
privilege
legal protection against confidentiality being broken in legal proceedings; the narrowest concept
prima facia
respect until you find the exceptions