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Chapter 6 Introduction to Viruses
Terms in this set (51)
__________ infect all known types of living things, but do not jump kingdoms.
obligate intracellular parasites
1- virion (cell-free, infectious particle)
2- cell-associated (active infection)
capsid, nucleic acid
a _________ and __________ are required for a viral structure.
a protein capsomer subunit that protects the viral core, elicits immune response, spontaneously assembles and rarely contains enzymes. This may or may not have an envelope.
_____ assist in binding and entry. They must attach to the outside of the virus in order to get it.
this lipid bilayer is the host membrane taken during release
dangerous if inside envelope, they will be destroyed.
naked helical virus
rigid cylinder shaped virus
enveloped helical virus
flexible cylinder shaped nucleocapsid. Examples are influenza, measles and rabies.
naked icosahedral virus
many sided. Examples are the adenovirus and papillomavirus
enveloped icosahedral virus
complex virus, several layers of lipoproteins, contains coarse fibrils
bacterial virus, has a polyhedral head, a helical tail and fibers used for attachment
this core may be DNA or RNA, ds or ss, sense (template strand), antisense (code strand) or mixed, circular, linear or segmented, but have no metabolic genes.
DNA -> RNA -> protein
DNA virus (hepadnaviridae)
this family of viruses violate the theory of central dogma. They use reverse transcriptase (using RNA to make DNA)
this virus causes cancer
this virus causes long term illnesses, such as HIV 1 & 2, SIV, FIV.
variola (smallpox), vaccinia (cowpox)
HSV1 (cold sores), HV2 (genital), VZV (chickenpox/shingles), CMV (mono)
HPV, causes warts
viral infection cycle/replication
2) penetration and uncoating
___________ is the first step in virus replication. In this step the host cell recognizes and binds the virus via VRBP.
viral host range
not all viruses can infect all hosts. This is determined by the relationship between the VRBP and the host receptor (HR)
penetration and uncoating
__________ is the second step in virus replication. This is where the virion enters the cell and the capsid is degraded, freeing the genetic core.
penetration occurs by _____________ or fusion of the envelope.
__________ is the third step in virus replication. This is when the host begins producing what the virus wants. Proteins produced in this step may be structural, regulatory, enzymatic or destructive.
_________ is the fourth step in virus replication. This is the sloppy process where progeny virions come together. Cores are inserted here.
________ is the fifth and last step in virus replication. Progeny virions exit via lysis or exocytosis to infect other cells.
retrovirus infection cycle
2) penetration and uncoating
3) reverse transcription of RNA core
4) insertion of DNA into host genome
reverse transcriptase, integrase
________ _________ and _________ are ideal targets for treatment because we don't use them.
______ is a lifelong infection.
_____ is the disease of T-cell attrition.
virus that causes cancer
exhibit contact inhibition
attach to each other
have limited reproduction
do not form tumors
lack contact inhibition
attach loosely or not at all
have unlimited reproduction
may form tumors
_________ ___________ is how viruses cause cancer. They can virally encode oncogenes, activate proto-oncogenes or inactivate tumor suppressors.
a product that checks to see if cancer is present
this is essentially regular evolution, slow changes over time. All viruses do this. (variations of the rhinovirus)
this is viral sex, drastic and less common. A superinfection is required, progeny virions become mixed with genetics. (pandemic)
bacteriophage infection cycle
2) lytic or lysogenic
lytic infection cycle
in this cycle the infected cell produces virions until it dies. Cells pop after they're done. Particles exit to exterior.
lysogenic infection cycle
this is plan B and beneficial if cell numbers are low. This cycle is where viral genetic material reversibly incorporates into the host genome. Insertion is not required. Dormant until conditions induce activity. Cells divide.
_________ _________ is how bacteriophages are a risk to humans. Examples are E. coli O157:H7, diphtheria, cholera and botulism.
bacteriophages may serve as _______ _______ by attacking certain bacteria but leaving normal flora alone (host specificity). They may also be used as a preventative measure in medicine.
in living things, a way of viral cultivation. Examples are in lab animals or eggs
in glass, a way of viral cultivation. Example is in a petri plate.
_______ are a noncellular infectious agent. This is an infectious protein. This may result in mad cow disease
________ _______ are a noncellular infectious agent. They have been mutilated until they don't work anymore. They have no capacity to infect on their own, but can attach to a virus and make it more dangerous.
prion infection caused by ritualistic cannibalism
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