History Chapter 6 The Byzantine Empire Test 1
Terms in this set (46)
What was the name of the new capital Constantine established?
New Rome - but more widely known as Constantinople - it became the Capital of the Eastern Roman Empire
What was Constantinople known as?
The meeting place of the East and West
Where was it located?
on a peninsula in the Bosporus waters - separates Asia Minor from Europe
What is the Bosporus?
a narrow strait that separates Southeastern Europe from Asia Minor.
Where did the Byzantium Empire get its name?
from the Greek city Byzantium on which Constantinople was built.
What was the culture of the Byzantium Empire like?
people considered themselves Roman but the culture was very influence by the Greeks and Asian ways.
Who was one of the first great emperor's of the Byzantium Empire?
Who was Justinian's wife that gave bold advice not to leave during the Nika Revolt?
Who did Justinian owe much of his success too?
Theodora - his wife - daughter of a bear trainer - Because of her, he changed the marriage laws btw plebeians and patricians.
What was the Nika Revolt?
A riot in Constantinople - Nika meant Conquer 532 AD
What was one of Justinian's chief objectives?
to restore the greatness of the Roman Empire and to take back Rome
Was he successful?
To a certain extent he gained back North Africa, Italy and portions of Spain but never regained Rome.
T/F Under Justinian's rule was the Byzantium Empire borders at there largest?
True - his goal to take back the Roman Empire in the West from the barbarians did make the Byzantium Empire have its largest boundaries.
What was Justinian's most enduring accomplishments?
The formation of the Justinian Code - the Roman Laws had become very confusing. He appointed 10 scholars to reorganize the laws.
What was the Justinian Code?
A systematic arrangement of laws that clarified Roman legal principles
What other things did Justinian do to restore granduer to his kingdom?
he built churches (Hagia Sophia), bridges, aqueducts
he patronized the arts
What does Hagia Sophia mean?
What problems did Justinian leave his empire with?
debt, weakened borders due to military campaigns
"height of its glory but left it at the brink of ruin"
What city was second only to Rome as a patriarchal city?
Constantinople - one of the 5 patriarchal cities - leader of religion in the East
What were the five patriarchal cities?
Rome, Constantinople, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Alexandria
Who was the most important religious leader in the West?
The bishop of Rome - The Pope
Who was the most important religious leader in the East?
The bishop of Constantinople
What happened in 1054 that began the split between the west and east church?
The Great Schism of 1054 - The pope (bishop of Rome) assumed authority over some churches in Southern Italy that formerly belonged to the patriarch's authority (east) -
What happened when the patriarch refuse to accept the Pope's decision to rule over certain churches?
The Pope excommunicated the patriarch and then the Byzantium Church (patriarch) excommunicated the Pope.
What were some of the things the Byzantium Church did not like about the Church in Rome?
refused to believe Pope had supreme authority
marriage of priests
use of icons
when to celebrate Easter
What church emerged out of the East?
The Eastern Orthodox Church - orthodox meant correct belief
What church emerged out of the West (Rome)?
The Roman Catholic Church - Catholic meant Universal
What were some of the differences in how the churches affected the political arena?
In the East the church became a state church where the emperor of the East also was the protector of the church and its teachings. In the West the Pope was the one the people looked to instead of the King/Emperor.
During the Byzantium empire many attacks were made on her borders. List the attacks:
1-West - Lombards(Germanic Tribe)
2-North- Slavs and Bulgars(Balkan peninsula)
3-East - Persians
In the 7th century what was the new energetic force that the Byznatine Empire had to reckon with?
The Arab Muslims
The Muslims smashed Byzantine defense on every side but what happened to Constantinople?
It withstood the attacks and was called "the city protected by God"
What aided Constantinople in its defense against the Arabs?
"Greek Fire" - a new weapon
What was "Greek Fire"?
Naphtha oil and sulfur that burned even on water
Under who's reign did the Byzantine Empire have great military success and pushed back the aggressors?
What was Basil II known as?
The Bulgar Slayer - because he recaptured the Balkan territories where the Bulgars had settled.
Who had become one of Byzantine's competitors in the commercial world?
Venice, Italy - Venetian Merchants
What happened at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071?
The Seljuk Turks annihilated the Byzantine Army and conquered Asia Minor.
Who were the Seljuk Turks?
They were a nomadic tribe that adopted Arab Muslim religion and took Asia Minor away from the Byzantine Empire.
When Asia Minor was taken over by the Seljuk Turks what help did the empire ask for?
They asked the West Christians to send help so that Constantinople would not be taken over by Asia Minor. They west sent expeditions known as CRUSADERS to free the holy land
What happened in 1204 when an invading army breached Constantinople's defenses?
The city was destroyed and many were killed
Who was responsible for the attack on Constantinople in 1204?
The Venetian Merchant's who had hired greedy "Crusaders" to attack and destroy the city to destroy the competition
What event in 1453 marked the end of the Byzantine Empire?
The Ottoman Turks, Muslim invaders, attacked Constantinople and killed the emperor.
What were some of the Contributions of the Byzantine Civilization?
-Protected the West from the attacks of the invaders from the East- kept Islam from spreading into Europe
-Codified Roman Laws - Justinian Code
-Preserved Ancient Greek Civilization - kept writings of Aristotle, Homer and Plato
-Established Greek Orthodox Church
Who were Cyril and Methodius?
Two Byzantine missionaries to the Slavic people of Russia - they helped develop a Slavic written alphabet - Orthodox Church strong presence in Russia
What was one of the ways the Byzantine decorated their churches?
Through Mosaics - tiny glass and stones used to make a picture
What was one of the Byznatine's finest examples of Architecture?
Hagia Sophia - dome
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