25 terms

Life Science Chapter 10

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palisade layer
tissue under the upper epidermis made of thin, closely packed cells; tissue in which most photosynthesis takes place
cuticle
waxy protective layer that makes a leaf shiny
upper epidermis
protects the top of the leaf
chloroplast
organelle contains chlorophyll
xylem
brings water from the roots to the leaf
phloem
transports sugar solution throughout a plant
vascular bundle or vein
supports a leaf and is composed of vascular tissue
lower epidermis
protects the bottom of the leaf
stoma
an opening for the exchange of gases
spongy layer
tissue that contains many air spaces
guard cells
regulate the flow of gases into and out of the stomata
stem, root, leaf
The three main organs of all plants
taproot system
root system made up of one large root and many small, thin roots
fibrous root system
A root system made up of many roots that are about the same size
1. eukaryotic 2. multicellular with tissues 3. producers 4. have cell walls made of cellulose 5. have chloroplasts or other plastids with pigments
Five characteristics of plants
woody stem
strong, hard, usually brown stem that can support tall plants
herbaceous stem
Softer, more flexible, and often green plant stems
summer wood and springwood
annual rings are made of one layer each of these two types of wood
Transpiration
the release of water from plant leaves through stomata
osmosis
the diffusion of water through a permeable membrane; in plants this occurs in the roots
hormones
chemical substances that plants manufacture to aid in their own growth and development
Tropism
a plant's response to its environment
Phototropism
response to light
nastic movement
reversible, repeatable plant movements caused by changes in turgor pressure
turgor pressure
The pressure within a plant cell that results from the movement of water into the central vacuole