Cognitive Processes chapter 5
Terms in this set (24)
a particular approach to theorizing in which complex mental events such as learning, remembering, and deciding are understood as being build up of a large number of descrete steps. These steps occur one by one with each providing as it's output to the next step in the sequence p165
A nickname for a specific conception of the architecture of memory. In this model, working memory serves both as the storage site for material now being contemplated and as the loading platform for long term memory. Information can reach working memory through the processes of perception or it can be drawn from long term memory. Once in working memory material can be further processed or it can simply be recycled for subsequent valuable research, but has now largely been set aside with modern theorizing offering a very different conception of working memory.
Long term Memory
the storage system in which we hold all our knowledge and all of our memories. Long term memory contains memories that are currently activated, those that are activated are represented in working memory
A method of assessing memory. The person being tested is asked to come up with as many items as possible from a particular source (such as the list you heard earlier) or (things you saw yesterday)
An oftern observed advantage in remembering the early presented materials within a sequence of materials. This advantage is generally attributed to the fact that you can focus attention on these items, simply because at the begining of a sequence you are obviously not trying to divide attention between these items and other items in the series
The tendency to remember materials that occur late in a series. If the series was just presented, the recency effect can be attributed to the fact that these late arriving items are still in working memory (simply because nothing else has arrived after these items to bump them out of working memory
A data pattern summarizing the relationship between some performance measure (often, likelihood, of recall) and the order in which the test materials were presented. In memory studies, the serial position curve tends to be U-shaped, with people best aable to recall the first presented items (primacy effect) and the last presented items (recency effect)
Any mental activity that has the effect of maintaining information in working memory. Teo types of rehearsal are often distinguished: maintenance rehearsal and elaborative rehersal
Digit span task
A task often used for measuring working memory;s storage capacity. Research participants are read a series of digits and must immediately repeat them back. If they do this successifully they are given a slightly longer list and so forth. the length of the longest list a person can remember in this fashion is that person's digit span.
7 plus or minus 2
a number offered as an estimate of the holding capacity of working memory
the hypothetical storage unit in working memory, it is estimated that working memory can hold 7 plus or minus 2 chunks. An unspecified quantity of information can be contained within each chunk, since the content of each chunk depends on how the memorizer has organized the materials to be remembered
A measure of working memory's capacity. This measure turns out to be predictive of performance in many other tasks, presumably because these tasks all rely on working memory. This measure is also the modern replacement for (less usefull) measure obtained from the digit span task
A rote mechanical process in which items are continually cycled through working memory merely by being repeated over and over. also called item specific rehearsal
A form of mental processing in which you think about the relations or connections among ideas. The connections created (or strengthened) in thiis way will later guide memory search
A way of engaging materials to be remembered such that you pay attention to what the materials mean and how they are related to each other, ot to other things in the surroundings or to other things you already know.
One of the low level assistants hypothesized as part of the working memory system. The loop draws on subvocalized (covert) speech, which serves to create a record in this buffer then fade but they can be refreshed by another cycle of covert speech.
The acquisition of memories in a setting in which people know that their memory for the information will be tested later.
Learning that takes place in the absence of any intention to learn and correspondingly in the absence of any expectation of a subsequent memory test.
A mode of thinking about material in which you pay attention only to appearances and other superficial aspects of the material shallow processing typically leads to poor memory retention
A mode of thinking in which you pay attention to the meaning and implications of the material; which leads to excellent memory retention
Level of processing
an assessment of how deeply newly learned materials are engaged, shallow processing involves thinking only about the materials superficial traits, deep processing involves thinking about what the material means.
A connection (or series of connections) that can lead to a sought after memory in long term storage
A technique designed to improve accuracy and to make learning easier in general mneemonic strategies seek in one fashion or another to help memory by imposing an organization on the materials to be learned
Peg word systems
a type of mnemonic strategy using words or locations as pegs on which to hang the materials to be remembered
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