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Chapter 4, Chapter 5, Excel

acceptable use policy

a policy that a user must agree to follow to be provided access to corporate email, information systems, and the internet


software, while purporting to serve some useful function and often fulfilling that function, also allows internet advertisers to display advertisements without the consent of the computer user

advanced encryption standard

introduced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), AES is an encryption standard designed to keep government information secure

anti-spam policy

simply states that email users will not send unsolicited emails

antivirus software

scans and searches hard drives to prevent, detect, and remove known viruses, adware, and spyware


a method for confirming users' identities


the process of providing access levels and abilities such as file access, hours of access, and amount of allocated storage space


the identification of a user based on a physical characteristic, such as a fingerprint, iris, face, voice, or handwriting

black-hat hackers

breaks into other people's computer systems and may just look around or may steal and destroy information

certificate authority

a trusted third party, such as VeriSign, that validates user identities by means of digital certificates

child online protection

a law that protects minors from accessing inappropriate material on the internet


the abuse of pay-per-click, pay-per-call, and pay-per-conversion revenue models by repeatedly clicking on a link to increase charges or costs for the advertiser

competitive click-fraud

a computer crime where a competitor or disgruntled employee increases a company's search advertising costs by repeatedly clicking on the advertiser's link


the assurance that messages and information remain available only to those authorized to view them

content filtering

occurs when organizations use software that filters content, such as emails, to prevent the accidental or malicious transmission of unauthorized information


the legal protection afforded an expression of an idea, such as a song, book, or video game

counterfeit software

software that is manufactured to look like the real thing and is sold as such


a hacker with criminal intent


the science that studies encryption, which is the hiding of messages so that only the sender and receiver can read them


seek to cause harm to people or to destroy critical systems or information and communication systems for another country


threats, negative remarks, or defamatory comments transmitted via the internet or posted on a website


the electronic defacing of an existing website


the use of computer and networking technologies against persons or property to intimidate or coerce governments, individuals, or any segment of society to attain political, religious, or idealogical goals


an organized attempt by a country's military to disrupt or destroy information and communication systems for another country


decodes information and is the opposite of encrypted

destructive agents

malicious agents designed by spammers and other internet attackers to farm email addresses off websites or deposit spyware on machines

digital certificate

a data file that identifies individuals or organizations online and is comparable to a digital signature

digital rights management

a technological solution that allows publishers to control their digital media to discourage, limit, or prevent illegal copying and distribution


refers to a period of time when a system is unavailable

drive-by hacking

a computer attack where an attacker accesses a wireless computer network, intercepts data, uses network services, and/or sends attack instructions without entering the office or organization that owns the network

dumpster diving

looking through people's trash, another way hacker's obtain information


refers to the ability of a company to identify, search, gather, seize, or export digital information in responding to a litigation, audit, investigation, or information inquiry

email privacy policy

details the extent to which email messages may be read by others

employee monitoring policy

states explicitly how, when, and where the company monitors its employees


scrambles information into an alternative form that requires a key or password to decrypt


policies and procedures that address information management along with the ethical use of computers and the internet in the business environment

ethical computer use policy

contains general principles to guide computer user behavior


the principles and standards that guide our behavior toward other people


hardware and/or software that guard a private network by analyzing incoming and outgoing information for the correct markings


experts in technology who use their knowledge to break into computers and computer networks, either for profit or motivated by the challenge


have philosophical and political reasons for breaking into systems and will often deface the website as a protest

identity theft

the forging of someone's identity for the purpose of fraud

information compliance

the act of conforming, acquiescing, or yielding information

information ethics

govern the ethical and moral issues arising from the development and use of information technologies, as well as the creation, collection, duplication, distribution, and processing of information itself (with or without the aid of computer technologies)

information governance

refers to the overall management of the availability, usability, integrity, and security of company data

information management

examines the organizational resource of information and regulates its definitions, uses, value, and distribution ensuring it has the types of data/information required to function and grow effectively

information property

an ethical issue that focuses on who owns information about individuals and how information can be sold and exchanged

information secrecy

the category of computer security that addresses the protection of data from unauthorized disclosure and confirmation of data source authenticity

information privacy policy

contains general principles regarding information privacy

information security

broad term encompassing the protection of information from accidental or intentional misuse by persons inside or outside an organization

information security plan

details how an organization will implement the information security policies

information security policies

identify the rules required to maintain information security, such as requiring users to log off before leaving for lunch or meetings, never sharing passwords with anyone, and changing passwords every 30 days


legitimate users who purposely or accidentally misuse their access to the environment and cause some kind of business-affecting-incident

intellectual property

intangible creative work that is embodied in physical form and includes copyrights, trademarks, and patents

internet censorship

government attempts to control internet traffic, thus preventing some material from being viewed by a country's citizens

internet use policy

contains general principles to guide the proper use of the internet

intrusion detection software

features full-time monitoring tools that search for patterns in network traffic to identify intruders

mail bomb

sends a massive amount of email to a specific person or system that can cause that user's server to stop functioning


a contractual stipulation to ensure that ebusiness participants do not deny (repudiate) their online actions

opt out

customer specifically chooses to deny permission of receiving emails


an exclusive right to make, use, and sell an invention granted by a government to the inventor


reroutes requests for legitimate website to false websites

pharming attack

uses a zombie farm, often by an organized crime association, to launch a massive phishing attack


a technique to gain personal information for the purpose of identity theft, usually by means of fraudulent emails that look as though they came from legitimate sources

phishing expedition

a masquerading attack that combines spam with spoofing

physical security

tangible protection such as alarms, guards, fireproof doors, fences, and vaults

pirated software

the unauthorized use, duplication, distribution, or sale of copyrighted software


the unauthorized use, duplication, distribution, or sale of copyrighted software

public key encryption

uses two keys: a public key that everyone can have and a private key for only the recipient

script kiddies / script bunnies

find hacking code on the internet and click and point their way into systems to cause damage or spread viruses

smart card

a device about the size of a credit card, containing embedded technologies that can store information and small amounts of software to perform some limited processing

spear phishing

a phishing expedition in which the emails are carefully designed to target a particular person or organization

social engineering

hackers use their social skills to trick people into revealing access credentials or other valuable information

social media policy

outlines the corporate guidelines or principles governing employee online communications


unsolicited email


a special class of adware that collects data about the user and transmits it over the internet without the user's knowledge or permission


anti-spamming approach where the receiving computer launches a return attack against the spammer, sending email messages back to the computer that originated the suspected spam


an act or object that poses a danger to assets

time bomb

computer viruses that wait for a specific date before executing instructions


small electronic devices that change user passwords automatically


a problem that occurs when someone registers purposely misspelled variations of well-known domain names


software written with malicious intent to cause annoyance or damage


a phone scam that attempts to defraud people by asking them to call a bogus telephone number to "confirm" their account information

website name stealing

the theft of a website's name that occurs when someone, posing as a site's administrator, changes the ownership of the domain name assigned to the website to another website owner

white-hat hackers

work at the request of the system owners to find system vulnerabilities and plug the holes

workplace MIS monitoring

tracks people's activities by such measures as number of keystrokes, error rate, and number of transactions processed


a program that secretly takes over another computer for the purpose of launching attacks on other computers

zombie farm

a group of computers on which a hacker has planted zombie programs


refers to the varying levels that define what a user can access, view, or perform when operating a system

administrator access

unrestricted access to the entire system

agile MIS infrastructure

includes the hardware, software, and telecommunication equipment that, when combined, provides the underlying foundation to support the organization's goals


refers to the time frames when the system is operational


an exact copy of a system's information

business continuity planning

details how a company recovers and restores critical business operations and systems after a disaster or extended disruption

business impact analysis

a process that identifies all critical business functions and the effect that a specific disaster may have upon them


represents the maximum throughput a system can deliver; for example, the capacity of a hard drive represents the size or volume

capacity planning

determines future environmental infrastructure requirements to ensure high-quality system performance

carbon emissions

includes the carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in the atmosphere, produced by business processes and systems


a computer designed to request information from a server

cloud bursting

when a company uses its own computing infrastructure for normal usage and accesses the cloud when it needs to scale for high/peak load requirements, ensuring a sudden spike in usage does not result in poor performance or system crashes

cloud computing

a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction

cloud fabric

the software that makes the benefits of cloud computing possible, such as multi-tenancy

cloud fabric controller

an individual who monitors and provisions cloud resources similar to a server administrator at an individual company

cold site

a separate facility that does not have any computer equipment but is a place where employees can move after a disaster

community cloud

serves a specific community with common business models, security requirements, and compliance considerations

corporate social responsibility

companies' acknowledged responsibility to society

data center

a facility used to house management information systems and associated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems

disaster recovery plan

a detailed process for recovering information or a system in the event of a catastrophic disaster

dynamic scaling

means that the MIS infrastructure can be automatically scaled up or down based on needed requirements


a sudden, unexpected event requiring immediate action due to potential threat to health and safety, the environment, or property

emergency notification service

an infrastructure built for notifying people in the event of an emergency

emergency preparedness

ensures a company is ready to respond to an emergency in an organized, timely, and effective manner

energy consumption

the amount of energy consumed by business processes and systems

enterprise architect

a person grounded in technology, fluent in business, and able to provide the important bridge between MIS and the business


refers to the discarded, obsolete, or broken electronic devices


occurs when the primary machine recovers and resumes operations, taking over from the secondary server


a specific type of fault tolerance, occurs when a redundant storage server offers an exact replica of the real-time data, and if the primary server crashes the users are automatically directed to the secondary server or backup server

fault tolerance

a general concept that a system crashes as the backup system immediately and automatically takes over with no loss of service

grid computing

a collection of computers, often geographically dispersed, that are coordinated to solve a common problem


consists of the physical devices associated with a computer system

high availability

occurs when a system is continuously operational at all times

hot site

a separate and fully equipped facility where the company can move immediately after a disaster and resume business

hybrid cloud

includes two or more private, public, or community clouds, but each cloud remains separate and is only linked by technology that enables data and application portability


unplanned interruption of a service

incident management

the process responsible for managing how incidents are identified and corrected

incident record

contains all of the details of an incident

information MIS infrastructure

identifies where and how important information, such as customer records, is maintained and secured

infrastructure as a service

the delivery of computer hardware capability, including the use of servers, networking, and storage, as a service


refers to how quickly a system can transform to support environmental changes

MIS infrastructure

includes the plans for how a firm will build, deploy, use, and share its data, processes, and MIS assets

Moore's Law

refers to the computer chip performance per dollar doubling every 18 months


a single instance of a system serves multiple customers


a communications systems created by linking two or more devices and establishing a standard methodology in which they can communicate


measures how quickly a system performs a process or transaction

platform as a service

supports the deployment of entire systems including hardware, networking, and applications using a pay-per-use revenue model


refers to the ability of an application to operate on different devices or software platforms, such as different operating systems

private cloud

serves only one customer or organization and can be located on the customers' premises or off the customers' premises

public cloud

promotes massive, global, industrywide applications offered to the general public


the ability to get a system up and running in the event of a system crash or failure that includes restoring the information backup


ensures a system is functioning correctly and providing accurate information


describes how well a system can scale up or adapt to the increased demand of growth


a computer dedicated to providing information in response to requests


how quickly a third party or vendor can change a system to ensure it meets user needs and the terms of any contracts, including agreed levels of reliability, maintainability, or availability


each customer or tenant must purchase and maintain an individual system

smart grid

delivers electricity using two-way digital technology


the set of instructions the hardware executes to carry out specific tasks

software as a service

delivers applications over the cloud using a pay-per-use revenue model

sustainable MIS disposal

refers to the safe disposal of MIS assets at the end of their life cycle

sustainable MIS infrastructure

identifies ways that a company can grow in terms of computing resources while simultaneously becoming less dependent on hardware and energy consumption

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