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160 terms

ISYS 210 Exam 2

Chapter 4, Chapter 5, Excel
STUDY
PLAY
acceptable use policy
a policy that a user must agree to follow to be provided access to corporate email, information systems, and the internet
adware
software, while purporting to serve some useful function and often fulfilling that function, also allows internet advertisers to display advertisements without the consent of the computer user
advanced encryption standard
introduced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), AES is an encryption standard designed to keep government information secure
anti-spam policy
simply states that email users will not send unsolicited emails
antivirus software
scans and searches hard drives to prevent, detect, and remove known viruses, adware, and spyware
authentication
a method for confirming users' identities
authorization
the process of providing access levels and abilities such as file access, hours of access, and amount of allocated storage space
biometrics
the identification of a user based on a physical characteristic, such as a fingerprint, iris, face, voice, or handwriting
black-hat hackers
breaks into other people's computer systems and may just look around or may steal and destroy information
certificate authority
a trusted third party, such as VeriSign, that validates user identities by means of digital certificates
child online protection
a law that protects minors from accessing inappropriate material on the internet
click-fraud
the abuse of pay-per-click, pay-per-call, and pay-per-conversion revenue models by repeatedly clicking on a link to increase charges or costs for the advertiser
competitive click-fraud
a computer crime where a competitor or disgruntled employee increases a company's search advertising costs by repeatedly clicking on the advertiser's link
confidentiality
the assurance that messages and information remain available only to those authorized to view them
content filtering
occurs when organizations use software that filters content, such as emails, to prevent the accidental or malicious transmission of unauthorized information
copyright
the legal protection afforded an expression of an idea, such as a song, book, or video game
counterfeit software
software that is manufactured to look like the real thing and is sold as such
cracker
a hacker with criminal intent
cryptography
the science that studies encryption, which is the hiding of messages so that only the sender and receiver can read them
cyberterrorists
seek to cause harm to people or to destroy critical systems or information and communication systems for another country
cyberbullying
threats, negative remarks, or defamatory comments transmitted via the internet or posted on a website
cybervandalism
the electronic defacing of an existing website
cyberterrorism
the use of computer and networking technologies against persons or property to intimidate or coerce governments, individuals, or any segment of society to attain political, religious, or idealogical goals
cyberwar
an organized attempt by a country's military to disrupt or destroy information and communication systems for another country
decrypt
decodes information and is the opposite of encrypted
destructive agents
malicious agents designed by spammers and other internet attackers to farm email addresses off websites or deposit spyware on machines
digital certificate
a data file that identifies individuals or organizations online and is comparable to a digital signature
digital rights management
a technological solution that allows publishers to control their digital media to discourage, limit, or prevent illegal copying and distribution
downtime
refers to a period of time when a system is unavailable
drive-by hacking
a computer attack where an attacker accesses a wireless computer network, intercepts data, uses network services, and/or sends attack instructions without entering the office or organization that owns the network
dumpster diving
looking through people's trash, another way hacker's obtain information
ediscovery
refers to the ability of a company to identify, search, gather, seize, or export digital information in responding to a litigation, audit, investigation, or information inquiry
email privacy policy
details the extent to which email messages may be read by others
employee monitoring policy
states explicitly how, when, and where the company monitors its employees
encryption
scrambles information into an alternative form that requires a key or password to decrypt
epolicies
policies and procedures that address information management along with the ethical use of computers and the internet in the business environment
ethical computer use policy
contains general principles to guide computer user behavior
ethics
the principles and standards that guide our behavior toward other people
firewall
hardware and/or software that guard a private network by analyzing incoming and outgoing information for the correct markings
hackers
experts in technology who use their knowledge to break into computers and computer networks, either for profit or motivated by the challenge
hactivists
have philosophical and political reasons for breaking into systems and will often deface the website as a protest
identity theft
the forging of someone's identity for the purpose of fraud
information compliance
the act of conforming, acquiescing, or yielding information
information ethics
govern the ethical and moral issues arising from the development and use of information technologies, as well as the creation, collection, duplication, distribution, and processing of information itself (with or without the aid of computer technologies)
information governance
refers to the overall management of the availability, usability, integrity, and security of company data
information management
examines the organizational resource of information and regulates its definitions, uses, value, and distribution ensuring it has the types of data/information required to function and grow effectively
information property
an ethical issue that focuses on who owns information about individuals and how information can be sold and exchanged
information secrecy
the category of computer security that addresses the protection of data from unauthorized disclosure and confirmation of data source authenticity
information privacy policy
contains general principles regarding information privacy
information security
broad term encompassing the protection of information from accidental or intentional misuse by persons inside or outside an organization
information security plan
details how an organization will implement the information security policies
information security policies
identify the rules required to maintain information security, such as requiring users to log off before leaving for lunch or meetings, never sharing passwords with anyone, and changing passwords every 30 days
insiders
legitimate users who purposely or accidentally misuse their access to the environment and cause some kind of business-affecting-incident
intellectual property
intangible creative work that is embodied in physical form and includes copyrights, trademarks, and patents
internet censorship
government attempts to control internet traffic, thus preventing some material from being viewed by a country's citizens
internet use policy
contains general principles to guide the proper use of the internet
intrusion detection software
features full-time monitoring tools that search for patterns in network traffic to identify intruders
mail bomb
sends a massive amount of email to a specific person or system that can cause that user's server to stop functioning
nonrepudiation
a contractual stipulation to ensure that ebusiness participants do not deny (repudiate) their online actions
opt out
customer specifically chooses to deny permission of receiving emails
patent
an exclusive right to make, use, and sell an invention granted by a government to the inventor
pharming
reroutes requests for legitimate website to false websites
pharming attack
uses a zombie farm, often by an organized crime association, to launch a massive phishing attack
phishing
a technique to gain personal information for the purpose of identity theft, usually by means of fraudulent emails that look as though they came from legitimate sources
phishing expedition
a masquerading attack that combines spam with spoofing
physical security
tangible protection such as alarms, guards, fireproof doors, fences, and vaults
pirated software
the unauthorized use, duplication, distribution, or sale of copyrighted software
privacy
the unauthorized use, duplication, distribution, or sale of copyrighted software
public key encryption
uses two keys: a public key that everyone can have and a private key for only the recipient
script kiddies / script bunnies
find hacking code on the internet and click and point their way into systems to cause damage or spread viruses
smart card
a device about the size of a credit card, containing embedded technologies that can store information and small amounts of software to perform some limited processing
spear phishing
a phishing expedition in which the emails are carefully designed to target a particular person or organization
social engineering
hackers use their social skills to trick people into revealing access credentials or other valuable information
social media policy
outlines the corporate guidelines or principles governing employee online communications
spam
unsolicited email
spyware
a special class of adware that collects data about the user and transmits it over the internet without the user's knowledge or permission
teergrubbing
anti-spamming approach where the receiving computer launches a return attack against the spammer, sending email messages back to the computer that originated the suspected spam
threat
an act or object that poses a danger to assets
time bomb
computer viruses that wait for a specific date before executing instructions
tokens
small electronic devices that change user passwords automatically
typosquatting
a problem that occurs when someone registers purposely misspelled variations of well-known domain names
virus
software written with malicious intent to cause annoyance or damage
vishing
a phone scam that attempts to defraud people by asking them to call a bogus telephone number to "confirm" their account information
website name stealing
the theft of a website's name that occurs when someone, posing as a site's administrator, changes the ownership of the domain name assigned to the website to another website owner
white-hat hackers
work at the request of the system owners to find system vulnerabilities and plug the holes
workplace MIS monitoring
tracks people's activities by such measures as number of keystrokes, error rate, and number of transactions processed
zombie
a program that secretly takes over another computer for the purpose of launching attacks on other computers
zombie farm
a group of computers on which a hacker has planted zombie programs
acessibility
refers to the varying levels that define what a user can access, view, or perform when operating a system
administrator access
unrestricted access to the entire system
agile MIS infrastructure
includes the hardware, software, and telecommunication equipment that, when combined, provides the underlying foundation to support the organization's goals
availability
refers to the time frames when the system is operational
backup
an exact copy of a system's information
business continuity planning
details how a company recovers and restores critical business operations and systems after a disaster or extended disruption
business impact analysis
a process that identifies all critical business functions and the effect that a specific disaster may have upon them
capacity
represents the maximum throughput a system can deliver; for example, the capacity of a hard drive represents the size or volume
capacity planning
determines future environmental infrastructure requirements to ensure high-quality system performance
carbon emissions
includes the carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in the atmosphere, produced by business processes and systems
client
a computer designed to request information from a server
cloud bursting
when a company uses its own computing infrastructure for normal usage and accesses the cloud when it needs to scale for high/peak load requirements, ensuring a sudden spike in usage does not result in poor performance or system crashes
cloud computing
a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction
cloud fabric
the software that makes the benefits of cloud computing possible, such as multi-tenancy
cloud fabric controller
an individual who monitors and provisions cloud resources similar to a server administrator at an individual company
cold site
a separate facility that does not have any computer equipment but is a place where employees can move after a disaster
community cloud
serves a specific community with common business models, security requirements, and compliance considerations
corporate social responsibility
companies' acknowledged responsibility to society
data center
a facility used to house management information systems and associated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems
disaster recovery plan
a detailed process for recovering information or a system in the event of a catastrophic disaster
dynamic scaling
means that the MIS infrastructure can be automatically scaled up or down based on needed requirements
emergency
a sudden, unexpected event requiring immediate action due to potential threat to health and safety, the environment, or property
emergency notification service
an infrastructure built for notifying people in the event of an emergency
emergency preparedness
ensures a company is ready to respond to an emergency in an organized, timely, and effective manner
energy consumption
the amount of energy consumed by business processes and systems
enterprise architect
a person grounded in technology, fluent in business, and able to provide the important bridge between MIS and the business
ewaste
refers to the discarded, obsolete, or broken electronic devices
fallback
occurs when the primary machine recovers and resumes operations, taking over from the secondary server
fallover
a specific type of fault tolerance, occurs when a redundant storage server offers an exact replica of the real-time data, and if the primary server crashes the users are automatically directed to the secondary server or backup server
fault tolerance
a general concept that a system crashes as the backup system immediately and automatically takes over with no loss of service
grid computing
a collection of computers, often geographically dispersed, that are coordinated to solve a common problem
hardware
consists of the physical devices associated with a computer system
high availability
occurs when a system is continuously operational at all times
hot site
a separate and fully equipped facility where the company can move immediately after a disaster and resume business
hybrid cloud
includes two or more private, public, or community clouds, but each cloud remains separate and is only linked by technology that enables data and application portability
incident
unplanned interruption of a service
incident management
the process responsible for managing how incidents are identified and corrected
incident record
contains all of the details of an incident
information MIS infrastructure
identifies where and how important information, such as customer records, is maintained and secured
infrastructure as a service
the delivery of computer hardware capability, including the use of servers, networking, and storage, as a service
maintainability
refers to how quickly a system can transform to support environmental changes
MIS infrastructure
includes the plans for how a firm will build, deploy, use, and share its data, processes, and MIS assets
Moore's Law
refers to the computer chip performance per dollar doubling every 18 months
Multi-tenancy
a single instance of a system serves multiple customers
Network
a communications systems created by linking two or more devices and establishing a standard methodology in which they can communicate
performance
measures how quickly a system performs a process or transaction
platform as a service
supports the deployment of entire systems including hardware, networking, and applications using a pay-per-use revenue model
portability
refers to the ability of an application to operate on different devices or software platforms, such as different operating systems
private cloud
serves only one customer or organization and can be located on the customers' premises or off the customers' premises
public cloud
promotes massive, global, industrywide applications offered to the general public
recovery
the ability to get a system up and running in the event of a system crash or failure that includes restoring the information backup
reliability
ensures a system is functioning correctly and providing accurate information
scalability
describes how well a system can scale up or adapt to the increased demand of growth
server
a computer dedicated to providing information in response to requests
serviceability
how quickly a third party or vendor can change a system to ensure it meets user needs and the terms of any contracts, including agreed levels of reliability, maintainability, or availability
single-tenancy
each customer or tenant must purchase and maintain an individual system
smart grid
delivers electricity using two-way digital technology
software
the set of instructions the hardware executes to carry out specific tasks
software as a service
delivers applications over the cloud using a pay-per-use revenue model
sustainable MIS disposal
refers to the safe disposal of MIS assets at the end of their life cycle
sustainable MIS infrastructure
identifies ways that a company can grow in terms of computing resources while simultaneously becoming less dependent on hardware and energy consumption
sustainable/green MIS
describes the production, management, use, and disposal of technology in a way that minimizes damage to the environment
technology failure
occurs when the ability of a company to operate is impaired because of a hardware, software, or data outage
technology recovery strategy
focus specifically on prioritizing the order for restoring hardware, software, and data across the organization that best meets business recovery requirements
unavailable
when a system is not operating or cannot be used
usability
the degree to which a system is easy to learn and efficient and satisfying to use
utility computing
offers a pay-per-use revenue model similar to a metered service such as gas or electricity
virtualization
creates multiple "virtual" machines on a single computing device
vulnerability
a system weakness that can be exploited by a threat; for example, a password that is never changed or a system left on while an employee goes to lunch
warm site
a separate facility with computer equipment that requires installation and configuration
web accessibility
means that people with disabilities- including visual, auditory, physical, speech, cognitive, and neurological disabilities- can use the web
web accessibility initiative
brings together people from industry, disability organizations, government, and research labs from around the world to develop guidelines and resources to help make the web accessible to people with disabilities, including auditory, cognitive, physical, speech, and visual disabilities