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Chapters 8 and 14
Terms in this set (62)
Receptors that are sensitive to ultraviolet light are found in what animal?
What is the neurotransmitter that has descending spinal pathways that inhibit pain transmission in the spinal cord?
What is generator potential?
A local change in the resting potential of a receptor cell that mediates the impact of stimuli and the initiation of nerve impulses
What is a probable cause of one version of the heritable disorder cogenital pain insensitivity?
defective production of receptors to nerve growth factor
What type of pain is exemplified in phantom limb pain?
What happens in the process of sensory transduction?
Energy is converted into a change in membrane potential
Describe the effects of naloxone treatment on TENS.
Naloxone reduces the analgesic effect of TENS.
According to the concept of _______, particular nerve cells in the brain recognize sensory information that is specific to only particular types of information.
In the experiments of Merzenich and Jenkins, monkeys trained to maintain finger contact with a rotating disc to obtain a reward showed what change in the cortical representations of the fingers?
Cortical areas associated with the trained finger expanded.
As you sit and answer this question, you are receiving less and less information about the feeling of the seat on which you are sitting. This is due to the process underlying your sensory receptors response to the stimuli called what?
What is the function of the fast-adapting tactile receptors called the Meissner's corpuscles?
They mediate most of our ability to perceive
Information about pain and temperature in the anterolateral system crosses the nervous system at the level of the _______.
What are nociceptors?
Sensory receptors that are specialized for responding to painful stimuli.
Mice lacking the gene for TRPV1 respond to _______ but not to _______.
Mechanosensory pain; heat
Each sensory receptor organ is affected by particular environmental events for which that organ is particularly adapted. These events are called________.
Mountcastle found that cells in the _______ cortex of the monkey brain are active in response to the animal's expectation that a visual or auditory stimulus will appear.
In contrast to cortical somatosensory area S1, sensory area S2 maps which sides of the body?
both sides of the body
Which layer of skin contains a rich web of nerve fibers in a network of connective tissue and blood vessels?
an area of skin innervated by a single spinal nerve
Stimulation of a Pacinian corpuscle causes the opening of _______ gated _______ channels.
What system carries somatosensory information from the skin to the brain?
The Dorsal Column System
What are sensory receptor organs?
Organs that are specialized to detect a certain stiumulus
What is the purpose of receptor cells?
To convert the stimulus into an electrical signal
What is the type of stimulus to which a sensory organ is particularly adapted?
ex: photic (light) energy for the eye
What are the five types of sensory systems?
Name the modalities of the Mechanical Sensory System.
Vestibular: head movement/orientation
What are the four modalities of the Chemical Sensory System?
Common Chemical: Changes in pH
Vomeronasal: pheromones in air or water
What is the modality of the Electrical Sensory called?
True or False: Sensory systems have a restricted range of responsiveness.
What does the doctrine of specific nerve energy state?
1. Receptors and neural channels for different senses are independent
2. Each sense uses a different "nerve energy"
True or False: all senses use the same type of energy-action potentials.
What is the concept of labeled lines?
The brain recognizes distinct senses because action potentials travel along separate nerve tracts.
What is the conversion of electrical energy from a stimulus into a change in membrane potential in a receptor cell called?
Define receptor potentials.
aka generator potentials
local changes in membrane potential
What is the name of a skin receptor that detects vibration?
The Pacinian corpuscle
aka lamellated corpuscle
A stimulus to the corpuscle produces a _____.
Graded electrical potential
When the potential is big enough, the receptor reaches _____ and generates ______.
threshold; an action potential
What is coding?
Patterns of action potentials in a sensory system that reflect a stimulus
True or False: A single neuron can convey stimulus intensity by changing the frequency of its action potentials
True or Flase: As the stimulus strengthens, more neurons are recruited. This exemplifies how multiple neurons can act in parallel.
What is the term for when different cells have different thresholds for firing, over a range of stimulus intensities?
What detects body sensations, including touch and pain?
The somatosensory system
What determines stimulus location?
The position of the activated receptors
What is adaptation?
The progressive loss of response to a maintained stimulus
True or False: Phasic receptors show slow or no decline in action potential frequency.
False: TONIC RECEPTORS show slow or no decline in action potential frequency.
What type of receptors display adaptation and decrease frequency of action potentials?
Describe top-down processing.
The higher brain centers suppress some sensory inputs and amplify others.
What region of the brain do most sensory pathways pass through?
What region of the brain do the sensory pathways end?
What is the term for the space in which a stimulus will alter a neuron's firing rate?
In what three ways do receptive fields differ from one another?
Response to types of stimulation
A separate _______ exists for each modality.
primary sensory cortex
What receives its main input from the primary cortical area for that modality?
Secondary sensory cortex aka non-primary sensory cortex
What receives touch information from the opposite side of the body?
Primary somatosensory cortex (S1)
aka somatosensory 1
What does the secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) aka somatosensory2 map?
both sides of the body in registered overlay
A state or condition of selective awareness by which specific stimuli are selected for enhanced processing
Can sensory systems influence each other?
Yes, polymodal cells allow for intersensory interactions
What is the condition where a stimulus in one modality creates a sensation in another?
ex: person has taste when hearing a tone
Name the layers of skin
Epidermis: outer, thinnest
Dermis: middle, nerve fibers
Hypodermis: anchors muscles and shape body
What are the four tactile receptors?
1. Pacinian corpuscles
2. Meissner's corpuscles
4. Merkel's discs
5. Ruffini's endings
True or False: Pacinian corpuscles detect the stretch and slow-adapting touch.
False; it detects vibration and fast-adapting touch.
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