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Physiology of Exercise Exam 3 (Putt/SBU)
Terms in this set (71)
2 main parts of nervous system
Central Nervous system
Peripheral Nervous system
Types of nerve fibers and what they do.
`afferent: Send impulses towards the brain
`efferent fibers: Send impulses away from the brain to muscles
Parts of a neuron
Free nerve endings, Golgi-type receptors, Pacinian corpuscles
Located in the inner ear
Responsible for maintaining general equilibrium and balance
-Maintains head position
Sensitive to changes in linear and angular acceleration
-Stimulated by head movement
Also controls head and eye movement during exercise
Golgi Tendon Organ
Monitors tension developed in muscle
- Prevents muscle damage during excessive force generation
Stimulation results in reflex relaxation of muscle
- Inhibitory neurons send IPSPs to muscle fibers
--Releases norepinephrine (NE)
-Excites an effector organ
-After stimulation, NE is removed from synapse or inactivated
- Conscious recognition of the position of body parts
- Limb movement rates
Voluntary movement translated into appropriate muscle action
-Higher brain centers concerned with general parameters of movement
-Details of movement refined in spinal cord
Ability of dendrites and the neuron cell body to respond to a stimulus and convert it to a neural impulse
Consists of several thin muscle cells called (intrafusal fibers) that are surrounded by connective tissue sheath.
Runs parallel with muscle fibers
`skeletal standard muscle fibers that are innervated by alpha motor neurons and generate tension by contracting, thereby allowing for skeletal movement.
`insert into connective tissue within the muscle.
skeletal muscle fibers that serve as specialized sensory organs (proprioceptors) that detect the amount and rate of change in length of a muscle
generate force for muscle contraction. (actin and myosin)
Storage sites for calcium
connections between the heads of myosin filaments and receptor sites on the actin filaments
Type S (slow) or type I fibers [smallest]
Type FR (fast, fatigue resistant) or type IIa fibers [intermediate]
Type FF (fast, fatigable) or type IIx fibers [largest]
a single motor neuron and all muscle fibers innervated by it
Junction between motor neuron and muscle fiber
Summation and Tetanus
1. summation is where muscle contractions combine and become stronger and more prolonged
2. tetatnus is the continous sustained contraction where muscle cannot relax. will release if maintained.
Play role in muscle growth and repair
-Increase number of nuclei
-Cytoplasm surrounding each nucleus
-Each nucleus can support a limited myonuclear domain
More nuclei allow for greater protein synthesis
Important for adaptations to strength training
Systole and Diastole
Systole is the contraction phase of the heart ( ejection of blood)
Diastole is the relaxation phase of the heart (filling with blood)
The amount of blood pumped by the heart each minute
Q= heart rate x stroke volume
AV and SV nodes
Av node - Passes depolarization to ventricles,
Brief delay to allow for ventricular filling
SV node - pacemaker, initiates depolarization
Amount of blood ejected or pumped in each heart beat
The number of heartbeats per unit of time, usually per minute. The heart rate is based on the number of contractions of the ventricles
Venoconstriction ( constriction of the veins)
increases venous return by reducing the volume capacity of the veins to store blood
widening of blood vessels
- Chemical messenger released from presynaptic membrane
- Binds to receptor on postsynaptic membrane
- Causes depolarization of postsynaptic membrane
How are oxygen demands of the muscle met?
Increased O2 delivery accomplished by:
Increased cardiac output
Redistribution of blood flow
effects of exercise training on the heart
-Reduce incidence of heart attacks
-Improves survival from heart attack
-Exercise reduces the amount of myocardial damage from heart attack
-Improvements in heart's antioxidant capacity
-Improved function of ATP-sensitive potassium channels
contains the nucleus
cytoplasmic attachments extend from the cell body; receptive area that can conduct electrical impulses toward the cell body
Carries electrical impulse away from cell body. May be covered by Schwann cells.
contact points between axon of one neuron and dendrite or another neuron
the axons are covered with an insulting layer of cells
-Releases acetylcholine (ACh)
-Inhibits effector organ
-After stimulation, ACh is degraded by acetylcholinesterase
The autonomic system can be separated both functionally and anatomically in two divisions
sympathetic division and parasympathetic division
The peripheral nervous system can be divided into two divisions
afferent and efferent divisions
Afferent division includes
somatic sensory, visceral sensory, and special sensory
Efferent division includes
Somatic and autonomic motor
The membranes of Schwann cells contain a large amount of lipid protein substance called _____, which forms a discontinuous sheath that covers the outside of the axon
The gaps or spaces between the myelin segments along the axon are
nodes of Ranvier
Inside of the cell is a _______ charge?
The larger the diameter of the axon, the...?
greater the speed of neutral transmission.
Receptors that provide the CNS with info about body position
proprioceptors or kinesthetic receptors
muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs, and joint receptors
Free nerve endings
Sensitive to touch and pressure
and Initially strongly stimulated, then adapt
found in ligaments around joints and similar to free nerve endings.
found in tissues around joints and adapt rapidly following the initiation of movement. this detect rate of joint rotation.
Skeletal muscle receptors/ muscle proprioceptors
muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs
The sensory feedback from the contracting muscles that properly control skeletal muscle movement?
1. info concerning the tension developed by a muscle. 2. account of the muscle length.
Golgi tendon organs (GTOs)
provide the central nervous system with feedback concerning the tension developed by the muscle.
provides sensory info concerning the relative muscle length. they require the finest degree of control, such as the muscles of the hand.
To meet the increased oxygen demands of muscle during exercise, two major adjustments of blood flow must be made:
1. an increase of cardiac output (increased amount of blood pumped per minute by the heart). 2. a redistribution of blood flow from inactive organs to active skeletal muscle.
Blood travels away from the heart in arteries and returns back to the heart using?
The purpose of the cardiovascular system is
1. transport oxygen to the tissues and removal of waste. 2. the transport of nutrients to tissues. 3. the regulation of body temperature
Relaxation of the heart
Contraction of the heart
is the force exerted by blood against the arterial walls and determined by how much blood is pumped and resistance to blood flow
systolic blood pressure
the pressure is created when blood is ejected from your heart
diastolic blood pressure
during ventricular relaxation (diastole), the arterial blood pressure decreases
______ regulates blood pressure by controlling blood volume
Mean arterial blood pressure
cardiac output x total vascular resistance
Cardiovascular control center
If the blood pressure is too high, receptors send impulses to _______, which responds by decreasing sympathetic activity. Which may lower cardiac out / vascular resistance.. bring the blood pressure down.
Blood pressure can be increased by one or all of the following factors:
Increase in: blood volume, heart rate, blood viscosity, stroke volume, and peripheral resistance.
Parasympathetic nervous system reaction on the heart rate:
When acetylcholine is released, it causes decrease in the activity of SA node and AV nods due to hyperpolarization (moving from threshold). End result is reduction of heart rate and PNS is a braking system to slow down heart rate.
Increase of PNS results in _____ and withdrawn of PNS tone activity results in____
slowing of heart rate; and elevated heart rate
Increased sympathetic nervous system
elevates heart rates
Stroke volume is regulated
1. end-diastolic volume. 2. afterload (aortic blood pressure). 3. the strength of the ventricle contraction.
Venous return increases during exercise due to
2. muscle pump
3. respiratory pump
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