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BH Exam 2
Terms in this set (74)
What is the maintenance level of lithium?
What is the acute level of lithium?
What are s/s of lithium toxicity?
N/v, Severe diarrhea, ataxia, blurred vision, excessive output of urine, tremors, mental confusion
What are 3 types of anticonvulsants
What are examples of antipsychotics?
What medications are known to have triggered a manic response?
SSRI (can cause manic), Steroids, Meth, High dose anticonvulsants
What is cyclothymic disorder?
Chronic mood disturbances of at least 2 years duration, numerous periods of elevated mood that doesn't meet the criteria of hypomanic
What is persecution?
Pt believes that they are being persecutely treated (ex. cheated, spied on, poisoned)
What is delusion of reference?
All events within the environment are referred by the psychotic person to harm himself
Delusion of control
Individuals believe certain objects or persons have control over their behavior
Delusion of grandeur
People may believe that they have a special relationship with a famous person or even believe they are that person.
False idea about the functioning of their body
False idea about the self. Others or the world is nonexistent
What are comorbid conditions of children with bipolar?
ADHD (most common), chronic irritability, temper tantrums
What is mania
An alteration in mood that may be expressed by feeling of elation, inflated self esteem, grandisosity, hyperactivity
Diagnostic criteria for mania
1. Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity 2. decreased need for sleep 3. More talkative than usual 4. fight of ideas or subjective experience
What is hypomania?
Milder degree of clinical symptoms. Not severe enough to be an impairment in social function
What is the distinction between bipolar and depressive d/o
Mania the patient must have a history of one or more manic episodes
What is anxiety?
Feeling of dread or discomfort where source is often unknown. Considered a disorder when excessive and interferes with day-to-day functioning
What is generalized anxiety disorder
Persistent, unrealistic anxiety and worry which occurred majority of days for min. 6 months. It is not triggered by organic factors (caffeine, hyperthyroidism)
What is Substance-induced anxiety disorder
Associated with intoxication or withdrawal from substances such as alcohol, sedatives, cocaine, hallucinogens, caffeine
What is anxiety disorder due to another medical condition?
Medical condition is associated with the development of anxiety symptoms (ex. MI, hypoglycemia, COPD). Treatment is the underlying cause
What are obsessions?
Thoughts that are recurrent and stressful. Pt recognizes that they are irrational but continue and cant be ignored
What are compulsions
Repetitive ritualistinc behavior the pt feels driven to perform to reduce the anxiety with obsessive thoughts
What makes OCD a disorder
When they are significant to cause distress or impairment in life. Pt recognizes that the behavior is excessive
What is body dysmorphic disorder?
Belief that the body is deformed or defective in some specific way (there could be no medical deformity)
What is hair pulling disorder (trichotillomania)
What is hoarding disorder?
What is panic disorder?
Recurrent panic attacks where onset is unpredictable and have intense fear, terror, physical discomfort
What are risk factors related to panic disorder?
Genetic, history of childhood physical or secual abuse, smoking
What are phobias
Persistent, intensely felt and irrational fear of specific things that result in you wanting to avoid them at all costs
What is agoraphobia
Fear of open spaces, not being able to escape. In extreme cases pt can't leave home without being accompanied by a friend or relative
Social anxiety disorder
Excessive fear of situations where a person might do something embarrassing, fear of speaking, using public restroom, writing in front of others
What medications do you use for anxiety?
Benzo's --> Increases GABA in the brain
SSRI --> Increases serotonin in brain
At what point is anxiety diagnosed as a disorder?
When fears and anxieties are excessive and there is an interference with functioning
Nursing dx related to anxiety
Anxiety, powerlessness, fear, social isolation, ineffective coping, ineffective role performance, disturbed body image, ineffective impulse control
What is some pt education for benzo's?
They affect the body similar to alcohol (avoid other depressants)
Shouldn't be taken longer than 4 months (highly addictive)
What is somatic symptom disorder?
Multiple somatic (physical) symptoms that cannot be explained medically associated with psychosocial distress. Pt spends excess energy devoted to worring about symptoms
Illness anxiety disorder
Unrealistic or inaccurate interpretation of physical symptoms with a fear of having a serious disease. The fear is becoming disabling
Loss of a body function that cannot be explained by any known medication disorder (ex. Loss of paralysis, aphonia (unable to speak), diff swallowing, blindness)
Patient consciously and intentionally pretends to be ill in order to receive emotional care and support.
What is munchausen syndrome?
May occur when factitious disorder is imposed on oneself or on another person
Inability to recall important or personal info usually of a traumatic event
Unable to recall all incidents associated with a traumatic event
Can only recall certain incidents associated with the traumatic event for a specific perioid after the event
Individual has amnesia of their identity and life history
A sudden unexpected travel away from the customary place of daily activities unable to recall some or all of one's past. Sometimes they assume new identity
Dissociative identity disorder
Existence of 2 or more personality states in a single individual
Temporary change in the quality of self-awareness which takes the form of unreality, changes in body image and feeling detached
What is depersonalization?
Expierences of unreality or being outside person with thoughts, feelings, sensations
What is derealization
Expiereinces of unreality or detach with surroundings
What is a short term goal for a patient with somatic symptom disorder?
Patient can verbalize understanding of correlation between physical symptoms and psychological problems
What is a long term goal for a patient with Somatic symptom disorder
Pt can demonstrate ability to cope with stress by means other than preoccupation with physical symptoms
What are nursing interventions for a pt with somatic symptom disorder
Recognize the physical complaints are real, provide pain medication, gradually withdraw attention to physical symptoms, encourage pt to verbalize fears
What is paranoid personality disorder
A pattern of pervasice mistrust and suspiciousness of others. These patients are always onguiard, ready for threat. Extremely oversensitive and don't accept responsibility for their behaviors
Schizoid personality disorder
Profound defect in the ability to form personal relationships and is often seen as isolated or lonely. May appear cold to others or inappropriately serious about everything
What is schizotypal personality disorder?
Odd, eccentric behavior but not to the extent of schizophrenia. Magical thinking, illusions, they cannot orient their thoughts logically
Antisocial personality disorder
Socially irresponsible, behavior that reflects a general disregard for the rights of others. Manipulative people. Law breakers, most common in men
Borderline personality disorder
Pattern of intense and chaotic relationships. Impulsive, self-destructive and lack identity. Frequent mood swings, extreme intensity, chaos, inability to be alone
Histrionic personality disorder
Colorful, dramatic extroverted behavior. Difficulty maintaining long relationships, require constant affirmation of approval and acceptance from others. Attention seeking, overly seductive
Narcissistic personality disorder
Exaggerated sense of self-worth, lack empathy and hypersensitive. They believe they should receive special consideration. Fragile self-esteem
Avoidant personality disorder
Extremely sensitive to rejection, socially withdrawn life, extreme shyness and fear of rejection. Awkward and unconfortable in social may be timid. Desires close friendships but avoids them because fear of being rejected
Dependent personality disorder
Lack of self confidence and extreme relience on others to take responsibility. Extreme discomfort with being alone. Allows others to make decisions, feel helpless. Overly generous
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
Very difficult to express emotions, overly disciplined, reoccupied with rules. Intense fear of making mistakes. Recurrent obsessions and compulsions are absent
Dx criteria for paranoid personality disorder
Suspiciousness of others motives
Dx criteria for schizoid personality disorder
Detachment from social relationships and restricted expression of emotions. Neither desires nor enjoys close relationships, chooses solitary activities, little interest in sexual experiences, lacks close friends, emotional coldness`
Dx criteria for schizotypal personality disorder
Acute discomfort for close relationships, odd beliefs or thinking, suspicious or paranoid ideation, odd behavior, lacks close friends
Dx criteria for Histrionic personality disorder
Emotionally and attention seeking, uncomfortable when not center of attention, seductive behavior, self dramatization, influenced by circumstances
Dx criteria for narcissistic personality disorder
Pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, lack of empathy, big sense of self importance, requires excessive admiration, sense of entitlement
Dx criteria for avoidant personality disorder
Pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, hypersensitivity to negative evaluation. Avoids interpersonal contact b/c fear of critisim, feels inadequate, scared to take risks
Dx criteria for dependent perseonality disorder
Pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fear of separation
Dx criteria for obsessive compulsive personality disorder
Pattern with orderliness, perfectionism, doesn't have openness or flexibility. Preoccupied with details, rules, order, organiszation. Perfectionism that interferes with daily tasks, devoted to work, things must be done their way
Dx criteria for BPD
Pattern of instability, impulsivity, efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment, unstable personal relationships, feeling empty, anger, suicidal behavior
Dx criteria for antisocial personality disorder
Violation of the rights of other, failure to conform to social norms with respect to law, repeated lying, failure to plan ahead, disregard to safety of others, doesn't honor financial obligations. >18 years old
Recommended textbook explanations
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
Understanding Psychology, Student Edition
Richard A. Kasschau
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
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