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Thornton History Exam Events

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95 Theses
Arguments written by Martin Luther against the Catholic church. They were posted on October 31, 1517.
Peace of Augsburg
1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler
Council of Trent
an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trento in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 in response to the Reformation
The Inquisition
Church court that punished people suspected of heresy
Line of Demarcation
imaginarry north to south line runnig down the middle of the atlantic and granted spain the west of the line and portugal the east
Treaty of Tordisillas
pope split up world between east and west for Spain and Portugal to conquer: Spain got west, Portugal got east
Council of the Indies
group of royal officials established in 1524 that oversaw the government and enforced laws in Spanish America.
New Laws of the Indies
these laws were created to end the abuse against Native Americans (enslavement). The problem was that Spain was too far away to enforce them
Jamestown Settlement
The first permanent English settlement in North America (1607), was an economic venture by the Virginia Company
Mayflower Compact
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
French and Indian War
a war in North America between France and Britain (both aided by indian tribes)
Treaty of Paris
this treaty ended the french and indian war
Middle Passage
the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade
Columbian Exchange
The global transfer of plants, animals, and diseases that occurred during the European colonization of the Americas
Spanish Armada
the great fleet sent from Spain against England by Philip II in 1588
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
This was the massacre that occurred during the wedding of a Catholic and Huguenot that would resolve the conflict between the two conflicting parties
Edict of Nantes
1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants
Versailles
a palace built in the 17th century for Louis XIV southwest of Paris
War of Spanish Succession
This was the war between France and Spain in order to unite the two states under one ruler, Phillip V
Long Parliament
This Parliament met for 13 years from 1640-1653 and chose not to implement the taxes that Charles II wanted to defend England against the Scots. This was mostly because they agreed with the Scot's negative opinion of Laud's religious changes and disagreed with the king on many issues. This powerful parliament also executed Charles's chief advisory, the Earl of Strafford.
English Civil War
civil war in enlgand fought between Roundheads and Cavaliers
The Commonwealth
Cromwell's new government that he runs where there is no king-a republic with no monarch
The Glorious Revolution
The English Parliament drove out an absolute monarch and replaced him with two constitutional monarch's William and Mary
The English Bill of Rights
made during the "glorious revolution" under William and Mary. This limited the power of the monarchy and guaranteed the privileges of the high class. This made sure that the monarchy ruled by the consent of parliament which now had to be called every three years. By doing so, it prevented the monarchy from gaining too much power and ruling in a way disagreeable to the people of England.
Thirty Years War
(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.
War of Austrian Succession
This war was over the inheritance of the throne by Maria Theresa, for the Salic law prevented a woman from solely ruling the state
St. Petersburg
Capitol city created by Peter the Great to resemble a French city. It was built on land taken from Sweden
Partition of Poland
This was the splitting up of Poland by Russia, Prussia, and Austria
National Assembly
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789. (p. 585)
Tennis Court Oath
vow by members of the 3rd estate not to disband until a constitution was written
Storming the Bastille
July 14, 1789 when mob and some of the king's soldiers attacked the Bastille which was a jail where the gun powder was kept the effect was the people getting left out, only 7 but the impact was great and all the guards got killed
National Guard
lead by Marquis de Lafayette, this army was formed after the Bastille to suppress revolutionaries
Paris Commune
The small government in Paris who wanted to resist the conservative leaders of France and tried to form their own government
July 14, 1789
Storming of the Bastille
August 4, 1789
date that liberal nobles and clerics began renouncing privileges, ultimately resulting in equal laws for French citizens
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution. (p. 586)
Women March on Versailles
Over six thousand women demanding to see the king. They marched from Paris to Versailles and convinced the king to move to Paris.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
passed July 12, 1790 during the French Revolution, lowered the Roman Catholic Church in France to the French government
Constitution of 1791
Said that all 3 estates have equal power in government, National Assembly becomes Legasliative Assembly, absolute monarchy is abolished, forcing the king to obey
Declaration of Pilnitz
the statment made by Austria and Prussia that they would attack France if anything happened to the King or Queen
Legilative Assembly
French congress with the power to create laws and approve declarations of war, established by the constitution of 1791.
Jacobins
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre
National Convention
the meeting of party delegates every four years to choose a presidential ticket and write the party's platform
Constitution of 1792
written by national convention; abolished monarchy in the late 18th century
Committee of Public Safety
The leaders under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795.
Reign of Terror
the historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed
Constitution of 1795
Constitution created by the French Revolution that had no monarchy and an executive called the Directory
Directory
The new government set up by the revolutionary leaders in France.
Consulate
diplomatic building that serves as the residence or workplace of a consul
Concordat of 1801
This is the agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon that healed the religious division in France by giving the French Catholics free practice of their religion and Napoleon political power
Napoleonic Code
Passed by Napoleon. Took away many of the rights gained by women, aimed at reestablishing the "family or inherited monarchy". Modified after Napoleon's defeat.
Battle of Trafalgar (1805)
This was a war under Napoleon; the French lost to the British
Continental System
Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe.
Battle of Austerlitz (1805)
This massive victory in 1805 by the French caused Russia and the Austrians to suspend their support against France, battle that took place in the heart of Europe, Napoleon defeated a combined force of Russia, Prussia, and Austria-Hungary making him the master of Europe
Battle of Wagram (1809)
For the 4th time Austria went into war with Napoleon wanting to get back some territory. Napoleon triumphed again and a peace agreement between them made Austria surrender lands
The Grand Army
Combined French armies under Napoleon. Virtually destroyed during Napoleon's Russian compaign.
Battle of the Nations (Leipzig) (1813)
While Britain forces under Duke of Wellington push into France through Spain, a combined Russia, Prussian, and Austrian force enter eastern France and Napoleon was exiled
Battle of Waterloo(1815)
This was the battle that Napoleon lost after his return from exile that ended his reign as French ruler
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
Quadruple Alliance
This was the alliance between Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia after the Napoleonic era
Concert of Europe
Alliances devised by prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent outbreak of revolutions.