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46 terms

Population, the Environment, and Social Change

STUDY
PLAY
DEMOGRAPHY
the study of the current state and change over time in size, distribution, and composition of human populations.
CENSUS
a head count of the entire population of a country, usually done at regular intervals.
IMMIGRATION
migration into a society from outside
EMIGRATION
the departure of people from a society
CRUDE BIRTHRATE
the # of babies born each year for every 1000 members of the population. OR The # of births divided by the total pop. multiplied by 1000
CBR= # of births/total pop. x 1000
CRUDE DEATH RATE
the # of deaths each year per 1000 people OR the # of deaths divided by the total pop. times 1000
CDR=# of deaths/total pop x 1000
INFANT MORTALITY RATE
the # of deaths per year of infants less than one year old for every 1000 live births.
LIFE EXPECTANCY
the average # of years a member of the group can expect to live.
SEX RATIO
the number of males per 100 females OR the # of males divided by the # of females times 100.
SR=# of males/# of females x 100
AGE-SEX PYRAMID
represents the age and gender structure of a society.
COHORT
consists of all the persons born w/in a given period.
MALTHUSIAN THEORY
the idea that a pop.tends to grow faster than the subsistence needed to sustain it.
GLOBAL WARMING
the systematic increase in worldwide surface temperatures.
URBANIZATION
the process by which a community acquires the characteristics of city life and the "urban" end of the rural-urban continuum.
GEORGE SIMMEL
argued that urban living had profound social psychological effects on the individual.
LOUIS WIRTH
focused on Chicago in the 1930s. Argued that the city was a center of distant, cold interpersonal interaction, and as a result the urban dweller experienced alienation, loneliness, powerlessness.
POPULATION DENSITY
the total # of people per unit area, usually per square mile.
GREENHOUSE EFFECT
a rise in the earth's surface temp. caused by heat trapped by excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere; global warming
ENVIRONMENTAL RACISM
consists of the dumping of toxic wastes w/ disproportionate frequency at or very near areas with high concentrations of minorities.
SOCIAL CHANGE
the alteration of social interactions, institutions, stratification systems, and elements of culture over time.
MICROCHANGES
subtle alterations in the day-to-day interactions between people.
MACROCHANGES
gradual transformations that occur on a broad scale and affect many aspects of society.
WILLIAM F. OGBURN
coined term cultural lag; when various parts of a society do not at all change at the same rate; some parts lag behind others.
HERBERT SPENCER AND EMILE DURKHEIM
both argued that as societies move throughout history, they become more complex.
KARL MARX
the founder of the conflict theory.
CYCLICAL THEORIES
the idea that societies go through a "life cycle.
ARNOLD J. TOYNBEE
argues that societies are born, mature, decay, and sometimes die.
PITRIM SOROKIN
argued that societies proceed through three phases or cycles. Idealistic culture, ideational culture, sensate culture.
GLOBALIZATION
the increased interconnectedness and interdependence of numerous societies around the world.
MODERNIZATION THEORY
states that global development is a worldwide process including all societies affected by technological change.
DEPENDENCY THEORY
maintains the highly industrialized nations tend to imprison developing nations in dependent relationships rather than spurring the upward mobility of developing nations with transfers of technology and business acumen.
MODERNIZATION
a process of social and cultural change initiated by industrialization and division of labor.
FERDINAND TONNIES
viewed the process of modernization as a progressive loss of gemeinschaft (German for community)
REVOLUTION
the overthrow of state or the total transformation of a central state institutions.
CULTURAL DIFFUSION
the transmission of cultural elements from one society or cultural group to another.
RALPH LINTON
said much of what many people regard as "American" came from other lands.
COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR
behavior that occurs when the usual conventions are suspended and people collectively establish new norms of behavior in response to an emerging situation.
SOCIAL MOVEMENTS
led by groups that act with some continuity and organization to promote or resist change in society.
PERSONAL CHANGE MOVEMENTS
aim to change the individual.
SOCIAL/POLITICAL CHANGE MOVEMENTS
aim to change some aspect of society.
REFORMIST MOVEMENTS
seek change through legal or other mainstream political means, typically through with/in existing institutions.
REACTIONARY MOVEMENTS
are organized to resist change or to reinstate an earlier social order that participants perceive to be better, and they are reacting against contemporary changes in society.
RESOURCE MOBILIZATION THEORY
an explanation of the development of social movements that focuses on how movements gain momentum by successfully gathering resources, competing with other movements, and mobilizing the resources available to them.
POLITICAL PROCESS THEORY
posits that movements achieve success by exploiting a combination of internal factors, such as the ability of organizations to mobilize resources, and external factors, such as changes occurring in the society.
FRAMES
specific schemes of interpretation that allow people to perceive, identify, and label events w/in their lives that can become the basis for collective action.
SOCIAL MOVEMENT THEORY
conceptually links culture, ideology, and identity to explain how new identities are forged w/in social movements.