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AP History Chapter 18
Terms in this set (11)
A sense of European supremacy; subject to much controversy as to it's origins; sparked by earlier movements of social Darwinism.
Scramble for Africa
Sudden wave of conquests of Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa. Other countries (Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain) acquired lesser amounts.
1857-1858; sparked by cultural conflicts between the British and the highly contrasting Indian Hindus; Indian Mutiny, Sepoy Mutiny; angered the British causing a direct and oppressive rule to be cast over the Indian subcontinent
Congo Free State/ Leopold II
Leopold II was king of Belgium from 1865 to 1909; his rule as private owner of the Congo Free State during much of that time is typically held up as the worst abuse of Europe's second wave of colonization; forced the natives to harvest wild rubber
System of forced labor used in the Netherlands East Indies in the nineteenth century; peasants were required to cultivate at least 20 percent of their land in cash crops, such as sugar or coffee, for sale at low and fixed prices to government contractors, who then earned enormous profits from further sale of the crops.
Agricultural production, often on a large scale, of crops for sale in the market, rather than for consumption by the farmers themselves.
Western Educated Elite
The main beneficiaries of Asian and African lands colonized by Western powers; schooled in the imperial power's language and practices, they moved into their country's professional classes but ultimately led anticolonial movements as they grew discouraged by their inability to win equal status with the colonizers
Wanjiku's life was heavily affected by encroaching European powers evidenced by a church service and ring for her wedding; Survived through the Mau Mau rebellion and saw Kenya become independent in 1963; her and her husband also grew tea as a cash crop
Africanization of Christianity
Process that occurred in non-Muslim Africa, where millions who were converted to Christianity sought to maintain older traditions alongside new Christian ideas; many converts continued using protective charms and medicines and consulting local medicine men, and many continued to believe in their old gods and spirits
Leading religious figure of nineteenth-century India (1863-1902); advocate of a revived Hinduism and its mission to reach out to the spiritually impoverished West.
Prominent West African scholar and political leader (1832-1912) who argued that each civilization, including that of Africa, has its own unique contribution to make to the world.
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