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Terms in this set (20)
Italian for 'movement', 'motion.' A word found within the tempo designation con moto (with movement) but particularly common as a qualification of another tempo mark: allegro con moto, for example.
Italian for 'nothing. Usually written as al niente, a musical dynamic often used at the end of a piece to direct the performer to fade the music away to little more than a bare whisper, normally gradually with a diminuendo.
Italian for 'heavy', 'weighty.' A direction usually applying to a whole passage or a whole piece rather than to individual notes or phrases.
Italian for 'forcing', 'compelling.' In Beethoven and most other 19th-century composers it is used for an accent within the prevailing dynamic and need not necessarily be very loud; but in the work of many 20th-century composers it is intended as an exceptional mark, irrespective of its context.
Italian for 'sustained.' A direction that has been used both to designate a style of playing and as a tempo mark or modification. The 'sostenuto' pedal on a piano is the one that sustains notes by lifting the dampers from the strings.
Italian for 'under the voice.' A direction in a score that a passage in a piece should be played softly, or sung in a soft voice. It was used originally in connection with vocal music, but was equally applied, by analogy, to instrumental performance.
Italian for 'detached.' Of an individual note in performance, usually separated from its neighbours by a silence of articulation. The separation may be, but is not invariably, accompanied by some degree of emphasis, and occasionally the term may imply emphasis without physical separation. The term may be regarded as the antonym of Legato.
Italian for 'suddenly', 'immediately.' A word found in musical scores often in conjunction with dynamics such as in the terms subito piano or subito forte.
Italian for 'held.' A musical direction to sustain a note to the end of its full value, often with a sense of stretch or slight messa di voce.
Italian for 'quiet.' A musical direction to sing or play in a quiet or calm manner.
German for 'slow.' A tempo mark, the German equivalent of adagio, lento, or largo.
German for 'rapid', 'swift', 'fast.' A tempo mark in common use since the 19th century in German scores, faster than bewegt but equivalent to a fast Allegro.
German for 'moderate.' As a tempo indication it is the equivalent of the Italian Moderato, used either alone or as a qualification of some other term.
German for 'always.' A qualifier for tempo or expression markings.
a German expression marking meaning 'joyful.'
German for somewhat.' A qualifier for tempo or expression markings.
Up an octave
Bb Bass clarinet
Middle C to Bb down an octave: Octave down plus one whole step
Minor third down; A below middle C
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